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December 2021 Newsletter

Volume 56, December 2021  Newsletter Editor: Dr G.B. Havenstein,  


wpc2022 postponed



Executive Committee

Secretary's Report

mulder roel

The dates for the World’s Poultry Congress are 7-11 August 2022. The organizers are preparing an up to date scientific and social programme. During the months leading up to the 2022 event date, those who have already registered can take advantage of their registration by watching webinars on several topics.

As announced earlier, during the Congress official awards sessions will be held for the inductees of the new members for the International Poultry Hall of Fame, and for the winners of the Paul Siegel Research Award and for the Education Award.

Also During the Paris Congress our next Council meeting will be held. Official voting will be held for new members of the WPSA board, and for the city and country where the next World’s Poultry Congress will be held. Branches and members will be informed about procedures and time schedules for the Council Meeting in the near future.

We have been dealing with worldwide, and sometime unannounced and changing travel restrictions due to the Covid pandemic. The first signs that parts of the world have re-opened for meetings and exhibitions are visible, and WPSA participated in VIV MEA in Abu Dhabi, UAE. A lecture programme was conducted with papers on WPSA today and tomorrow, with speakers from CID lines, Delacon and Aviagen on biosecurity in hatcheries, the importance of the science of phytogenic products and the occurrence of myopathies in broilers, respectively. The booth at that exhibition was well attended with many visitors from Bangladesh, India, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, UAE, and several European countries.

In November, we had our first visitors in a long time to be welcomed at our WPSA office in Beekbergen. Representatives from the Belgium and Togo branches were the first to come and spend time with us.

Besides the World’s Poultry Congress that will be held in Paris on August 7-11, the following two meetings are also scheduled for 2022: the 7th Mediterranean Poultry Summit, Cordoba, Spain, 8-10 June, and the 12th Asia Pacific Poultry Conference, Haikou, China, 1-3 November.

More communications and other news can be found on the WPSA Facebook page ( and website. A special calendar is reserved for webinars from associations and our supporting sponsors and advertisers. New items and activities that we might potentially send out through these methods can be sent to.

Dr Roel Mulder, General Secretary

Treasurer's Report

bradley francine new

In the United States we just finished our Thanksgiving holiday. I want to express thanks to all the hard-working Branch officers who have sent in their respective Branch dues. In the same vein, WPSA continues to be blessed with generous business people in the poultry and allied industries who support our Journal.

2021 december 4HMy first in-person large event this year was the 4-H National Poultry and Egg Conference, held the third week of November in Louisville, Kentucky. High school students from across the country who participate in the land grant universities’ 4-H youth programme, came to Louisville as state champions in Avian Bowl, Chicken BBQ, Egg Preparation Demonstration, Poultry Judging, and/or Turkey BBQ. They, as well as the volunteer Poultry Specialists who officiate, were so happy that the Conference was back on. The United State of America Branch of WPSA is a long and faithful sponsor of the Conference. This is a great investment in the future of the industry, as we now have members of the Poultry Specialists’ Committee, as well as speakers at our Career Workshops, who are 4-H alumni of the Conference.

I send my end of the year good wishes to all WPSA members. May we all enjoy a safer and healthier 2022.-

Dr Francine Bradley, Treasurer

26th World's Poultry Congress

Palais de Congrès, August 7-11, 2022, Paris, France

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The French WPSA Branch, in collaboration with the international Scientific Committee and the Board of WPSA, is actively working on the preparation of the face-to-face 26thWPC in Paris, 7-11 August 2022. The programme will feature a combination of plenary sessions and parallel object-oriented and specialized sessions, as initially planned. In addition, we will set up a live channel for a subset of sessions and we will also record all sessions to make them available in replay, to make sure that everyone will make the most of the programme. It will also give an opportunity, for those who would be impeached to join in Paris, to benefit from the scientific programme.

Abstracts submitted in 2019 and accepted in 2020 are made available to registered participants only:

  • in webinars organised until June 2022. All registered participants can select the webinars they wish to attend live, and/or view these as replay from a few days after the event. See
  • as e-posters on the webinars’ platform, see
  • in a book of abstracts that will be published online; only abstracts with at least one registered author will be included in this book.

These abstracts will not be presented anymore during the face-to-face event.

2020_wpc_200x200.jpgNew call for abstracts is open until 31 December 2021. This is the last chance to present new data at the 26th WPC in Paris, don’t miss it (

The abstracts submitted to the second call in 2020, and accepted in 2021, and the abstracts submitted to the third call in 2021, and accepted in 2022, will form the basis for the programme of the face-to-face event in Paris, 7-11 August 2022.

Registrations at regular fee will end after 31 December 2021, the late fee will apply thereafter (

By exception, the presenting author of an abstract submitted to the third call will benefit of registration at the regular fee up to one month after receiving the acceptation of their abstract by the Scientific Committee.

All registered participants will have access to the face-to-face event in Paris 2022.

 Christophe Bostvironnois, President French Branch
Michael Duclos, Secretary, French Branch
Michèle Tixier Boichard, WPC2020, Chair of WPC2021

Poultry Educational Resources

In her role as one of the Vice Presidents of the WPSA, Julie Roberts from the Australian Branch has compiled a list of Poultry Educational Resources which are available free of charge via the internet. Some of the web sites listed also have resources for sale. However, the focus of this list is resources which are free and therefore available to all members.

The list is posted on the WPSA website, and will always be a ‘work in progress’ as some resources become available and added, or others, if they are out of date or no longer available, will be removed from the internet list.

If members are aware of other resources that are available that could be added to the list, please contact Mrs Dorien Velner at the main office by email: with the title of the resource, how to access it and a short description.

All entries will be checked on a regular basis to make sure that they continue to be available, however if you find any irregularities, please contact us at


European Federation

The European Federation has numerous conferences planned between now and on into 2023. A list of most of our upcoming conferences may be found on the WPSA Calendar at
News from several European Federation Working Groups are provided below.

WPSA European Working Group News



espnIn order to avoid overlapping with WPC in 2022, ESPN will take place at the same planned venue, Palacongressi in Rimini, from 21 to 24 June, 2023. Our Branch would like to thank again VET International and Palacongressi of Rimini for their cooperation and understanding during this time. The city of Rimini, is an ideal place for the European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition and the modern as well as eco-friendly Venue is the perfect stage for the event. Many attendees including both poultry research scientists and practitioners, leading speakers from across the world joining together to explore the past, share the present and helping to forge the future of poultry meat science.


Breeding and Genetics

The European Symposium on Poultry Genetics has been postponed to 8-10 November 2023. It will take place at the Maritim Airport Hotel in Hannover.


Eggs and Egg Quality

Along with the organizers of WPC2022, the WG4 Committee organized a webinar on ‘Egg Quality to Value’ based on the accepted abstracts for the WPC that had been submitted in 2019. This was done in an attempt to get in touch with those scientists who were waiting for the Covid delayed World Congress.

The webinar was held on November 9th, 2021, and it included a very interesting programme that covered genetic, analytical, freshness, and quality aspects of eggs. The detailed programme for the webinar can be viewed at:

For those of you who are registered for the 26th WPC in Paris in 2022, but who missed the live webinar, replay is available at the following link: https:/

Enjoy the presentations!

Christina Alamprese & Joel Gautron, Chairs of WG4


Poultry Meat Quality

2023 Eggmeat logo EMQ 2023As for all European Symposia, the next ‘XXV European Symposium on the Quality of Poultry Meat‘ conjointly held with the ‘XIX European Symposium on the Quality of Eggs and Egg Products’ have been postponed to 2023 and it will be held between September 7 to 9, 2023 in Kraków, Poland. Such events provide a unique opportunity for scientific community, practice sector, and for all associated with the poultry sector to exchange recent advances, hot topics and upcoming challenges in the fields of the quality aspects of poultry meat, eggs and their products. Location of the Symposium in Kraków, which is one of the most recognized cities in Poland shall provide excellent opportunities not only for gathering and exchange knowledge but also for behind-the-scenes conversations in the magic places of the City.

Our next WG5 member meeting will be held during World's Poultry Congress 2022 in Paris.

Massimiliano Petracci, Secretary Italian Branch of WPSA

Asia Pacific Federation

WPSA Asian-Pacific Working Group News


Small Scale Family Poultry Farming

A new team has been formed for the Asian/Pacific Federation’s WG1 that is centred on Small Scale Family Poultry Farming. Since backyard poultry production is a very important part of many African and Asian Pacific countries, for the production of meat and eggs, this is an important working group for WPSA’s Asian/Pacific Federation, and the SSFPF has reorganized its team to include many members of the Asia/Pacific Federation. As a part of that effort, WG1 is organizing a World Native Chicken Conference, and will attempt to repeat that conference every two years. As the new leader of WG1, I invite and encourage all researchers and other WPSA members who are interested in this topic to join and participate in WG1. This working group can play a very important and vibrant role for many vulnerable rural economies in many countries.

Dr Nasir Mukhtar, Chair, APF WG1

For Correspondence: Dr Nasir Mukhtar Group Leader of WG1 ‘Small Scale Family Poultry Farming’
(Department of Poultry Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi-Pakistan)
WhatsApp/Mob: +92 (0) 3007200074 Email:


Ratites (ostriches, emus, rheas, cassowaries or kiwis)

A Ratite Research Session is being planned for the World Poultry Congress that has been re-scheduled in Paris, France from August 7 – 11, 2022. The actual date for the Ratite Session has not yet been determined, but please send any suggestions for contributions and/or topics that you have to 

Researchers involved in research on any Ratites (ostriches, emus, rheas, cassowaries or kiwis) are asked to contact the Ratite Group. Please send an email to .

Anel Engelbrecht, Chair


World's Poultry Science Journal

Upcoming articles

Articles in upcoming Journal(s)

  • R. Swick - New insights into arginine and arginine-sparing effects of guanidinoacetic acid and citrulline in broiler diets
  • F. Salisbury - Constraints on the modelling of calcium and phosphorus growth of broilers: a systematic review
  • A. Desbrusias - Dietary fibre in laying hens: a review of effects on performance, gut health and feather pecking
  • I. Jahid - Prebiotics, probiotics and postbiotics for sustainable poultry production
  • T. Ebeid - Physiological and immunological benefits of probiotics and their impacts in poultry productivity
  • B. Milosevic - Stinging Nettle (Urtica diocia) in broiler nutrition
  • M. Naiel - Practical application of some common agro-processing wastes in poultry diets
  • B. Umar - Fowlpox virus: an overview of its classification, morphology and genome, replication mechanisms, uses as vaccine vector and disease dynamics
  • N. Ogbuagu - Heat stress, haematology and small intestinal morphology in broiler chickens: insights into impact and antioxidant-induced amelioration
  • K. Damaziak - Preincubation and preheating - two different methods but with one purpose for use in hatchery. Can their interaction be twice as effective?
  • F. Dutra - What do we know about the impacts of poultry catching?
  • M. Shaalan - Nanoparticles applications in poultry production: an updated review
  • I. Bozickovic - Possibilities of productive and reproductive performance improvement in geese: part I - genetic factors
  • A. Yakubu - Characterization of indigenous helmeted guinea fowl in Nigeria for meat and egg production
  • T. Gill - Strengthening smallholder engagement and integration in the Rwandan commercial broiler value chain



New insights into arginine and arginine-sparing effects of guanidinoacetic acid and citrulline in broiler diets


Chickens have a high dietary Arg requirement compared to mammalians as they have an incomplete urea cycle and therefore cannot synthesise Arg. Arginine is important for protein synthesis and is also involved in immunity being converted to nitric oxide (NO) at the macrophage level. Nitric oxide is secreted as a free radical during an immune response and is toxic to bacteria, intracellular parasites and also has strong anti-viral and anti-cancer properties. Also, NO serves as a regulating factor for intestinal blood flow, integrity, secretion, and epithelial cell migration. As Arg is a limiting factor for NO synthesis, the increased availability of Arg following dietary supplementation of Arg and/or its metabolites could increase the NO production and subsequent immune status in birds. Such improvements on bird health may become useful for antibiotic growth promoter-free poultry production. The Arg requirement in birds has received special interest due to its large variation in different dietary conditions. Growing evidence suggests that increasing the dietary Arg level and Arg to Lys ratio above currently accepted levels may be necessary to maximise the productive potential of modern broiler strains due to the modulatory effect of Arg on energy and protein metabolism. Also, literature evidence has indicated that crystalline Arg, guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), and citrulline (Cit) can provide Arg activity in chicken diets and are all commercially available. Furthermore, the use of Cit could escape the degradation of enzyme arginase in the intestine and liver resulting in higher Arg levels in the bloodstream and NO production compared to Arg supplementation. The addition of GAA may also provide additional benefits on increasing creatine level and energy metabolism in broiler chickens compared to Arg. This paper will provide new insights into Arg and Arg-sparing effects of GAA and Cit in the broiler diets with a special focus on supplementation of Arg in reduced protein diets.

Constraints on the modelling of calcium and phosphorus growth of broilers: A systematic review


Deterministic modelling provides an approach to improve the precision of calcium and phosphorus nutrition of broilers. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to establish if data were available for the development of such a model. Two citation index sites were searched, using keywords chosen to return as many suitable studies as possible. The results were filtered to remove extraneous papers. The remaining studies were scrutinised for variables that would quantify the growth of calcium and phosphorus under ideal and non-ideal conditions. In over a thousand papers, few contained response variables that contributed to the development of a model. Serial slaughter with whole body mineral analysis (two studies) and serial bone analysis for ash, calcium and phosphorus (eight studies) could provide the necessary measurements. A preliminary growth model was developed using these data, but further research will improve this model and offer insights into the way in which the broiler utilises the calcium and phosphorus in its diet.

Dietary fibre in laying hens: a review of effects on performance, gut health and feather pecking


Dietary fibre has traditionally been considered an energy diluting component of laying hen diets. With low energetic value, and sometimes negative impacts on digesta viscosity and gut function, formulations have often aimed to minimize crude fibre contents. Increasing fibre contents can mean that the level of fat required to meet nutritional standards must be increased to account for the decrease in energy, with consequential impacts on feed handling. By contrast, recent research has shown that some dietary fibres can have beneficial effects on laying performance, driven by changes in digestibility, gut structure and function, as well as shifts in the gut microbiota. However, there is often a lack of clarity as to the quantity and type of fibre required to yield production benefits. Broadly, soluble fibres – while largely detrimental to nutrient digestibility – can act as prebiotics, favouring beneficial intestinal microbiomes, while insoluble fibres stimulate intestinal development and may have some preventative effects on feather pecking and cannibalism.

Prebiotics, probiotics and postbiotics for sustainable poultry production


Globally, poultry production has been an integral part of human activities, providing a major source of livelihood and food to humans. The continuous increase in the world population with an attendant rise in the demand for safe poultry products requires a global strategy for sustainable poultry production. With growing concerns over antimicrobial resistance, abolition or reduction in the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs), and rising consumer demand for chemical or antibiotic-free products, identifying and applying safe, natural and economical alternatives including prebiotics, probiotics and postbiotics for sustainable poultry production has become imperative. The beneficial effects of the dietary inclusion of prebiotics, probiotics and postbiotics as AGP alternatives in poultry production include improved poultry health, growth performance and feed efficiency. Generally, the mechanisms through which prebiotics, probiotics and postbiotics exert beneficial effects on poultry include competitive exclusion and antagonism of pathogens, modulation of intestinal microbiota, production of antimicrobial substances, stimulation of immune system, and enhancement of nutrients digestibility and intestinal morphology development. The properties and beneficial effects of these emerging alternatives suggest their contribution to the improvement of poultry health, through the stimulation of diverse physiological functions (although not entirely elucidated) with better growth performance and feed efficiency. This review discusses the concept, impacts and mechanisms of the application of prebiotics, probiotics and postbiotics in sustainable poultry production. Their general acceptance and application in the poultry industry will undoubtedly result in more sustainable, safe and economic poultry production for feeding the world.

Physiological and immunological benefits of probiotics and their impacts in poultry productivity


Using antibiotics as growth factors has been banned due to increasing the problem of antibiotic resistance and presence of antibiotics residues in poultry products, which pose a risk to human health. Therefore, probiotics could be utilized as a promising alternative to antibiotic growth promoters because of the increased require for antibiotic-free and organic poultry products. Probiotics are viable micro-organisms used as feed additives. Scientists have paid much attention to the benefits of probiotics due to their ability to preserve a healthy intestinal microbial balance. Probiotic supplementation could enhance the gut structure integrity, physiological function, intestinal immunity and health. Probiotics are also involved in enhancing the antioxidative status via activation of the antioxidative enzymes and reducing lipid peroxidation. Moreover, dietary probiotic micro-organisms are able to stimulate the humoral- and cell-mediated immunity and regulate pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the host. These physiological and immunological benefits of probiotics are translated into a various improvement in growth performance, laying performance, egg quality, meat quality, and meat safety. Interestingly, probiotics have positive impacts on alleviating heat stress in poultry. The current review is an effort to throw the light on the recent findings related to the benefits of dietary probiotics on gut development, nutrient absorption, gut microbiota, antioxidative properties, immune responses and productive performance in poultry.

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) in broiler nutrition


Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) represents a plant with traditional utilization in medicine in many countries. Despite its potentials stinging nettle is considered by intensive agriculture as a weed, but its biological properties, availability, together with simple processing technology can make it excellent dietary supplement on poultry farms. Nettle supplemented in broiler diets exerts positive effects regarding production performance. Nettle provides nutrients and bioactive components, which stimulate growth and feed utilization, modulate metabolic processes and support immune system in broilers. This review analyses published literature sources investigating the use of stinging nettle in broiler nutrition, which provided sufficient data to confirm its high potential for dietary application in broiler industry. Future research is needed in regard to clarifying and standardization of its phytogenic potential and nutritional value, as it depends on numerous factors, such as climate, vegetative stage, soil, harvesting time and processing technology.

Practical application of some common agro-processing wastes in poultry diets


Technological revolution in the field of agriculture has tremendously generated huge quantities of waste causing environmental pollution. The agriculture wastes can be categorized into different categories, such as crop waste and residues; cereal by-products; sugar beet pulp, starch and confectionary industry by-products; oil cereal industry by-products; grain and legumes by-products. It was found that the Agro-Co-products could be recommended in the poultry diet with low-cost advantages alternative to conventional ingredients. Despite of the high fibre content and low nutrient availability that limit the utilization of these by-products by poultry. Besides, the source of by-product, processing method/enzyme supplementation and animal factors found to be affected the utilization of agro-industrial by-products by poultry. If we could produce valuable products from agriculture wastes by-products through new technological and scientific applications, these by-products could be converted into products with a higher nutritive value than the main feedstuffs. Therefore, the present paper reviews provide a brief discussion on the utilization of some Agro-processing wastes as a source of nutrients in poultry diets.

Fowlpox virus: an overview of its classification, morphology and genome, replication mechanisms, uses as vaccine vector and disease dynamics


Fowlpox virus (FWPV) is a complex cytoplasmic DNA virus belonging to the Family- Poxviridae, Subfamily-Chordopoxvirinae and Genus-Avipoxviruses. The large size of the genome accommodates multiple gene inserts and the induction of abortive infection in mammalian cells and thus makes FWPV a promising vector for vaccine development against several important veterinary and human diseases. The virus is predominantly transmitted via aerosols or biting insects in poultry and causes fowlpox in chickens and turkeys. Fowlpox is a contagious disease of economic importance, with cutaneous and/or diphtheritic forms of infection seen in domestic and wild birds. It occurs worldwide (but is endemic in tropical and subtropical countries only) as mild to severe poultry disease. The disease is controlled via rigorous sanitation and immunisation with attenuated strains of FWPV or the antigenically similar pigeonpox virus vaccines. While most of these vaccines are highly effective in conferring long-lasting immunity, a number of recurrent outbreaks in previously vaccinated flocks have been reported. In recent years, fowlpox outbreaks in poultry flocks have been on the rise mainly due to emerging novel types of FWPV and the pathogenic traits of these strains are reportedly enhanced by integration of reticuloendotheliosis virus sequences of various lengths into the FWPV genome. This has become a hurdle in controlling the disease, thus necessitating the development of newer vaccines with improved efficacy. The present review summarises the overall dynamics of the FWPV including taxonomic classification, replication mechanisms, pathogenicity, provirus integration, its use as recombinant vaccine vector, disease impacts and diagnostics, and also highlighted gaps requiring further research.

Heat stress, haematology and small intestinal morphology in broiler chickens: Insight into impact and antioxidant-induced amelioration


This paper reviews adverse effects of heat stress on haematology and small intestinal changes as well as the beneficial effects of antioxidant agents, and probable mechanisms by which the agents ameliorate heat stress. High ambient temperature and high relative humidity cause heat stress, which negatively impacts on production, reproduction, immunity and health of broiler chickens. The cardiovascular system, particularly sensitive to changes in temperature, is an indicator of physiological responses to stressors by broiler chickens. Heat stress decreases small intestinal blood flow, erythrocyte count and haemoglobin concentration and alters the ratio of leucocyte types. Impaired blood flow causes injury to small intestinal morphology, including villi and crypts; impairs digestion, decreases rate of nutrient absorption and bird development, resulting in reduced body weight in broiler chickens. Antioxidant supplementation, involving vitamins C and E, fisetin, betaine, probiotic, taurine and melatonin, boosts the capacity of biological antioxidant barrier to combat reactive oxygen species, which are generated in excess during heat stress. In conclusion, antioxidants, by ameliorating adverse effects of heat stress on haematological and small intestinal changes, are promising prophylactic agents in enhancing productivity of broiler chickens under heat-stress conditions.

Preincubation and preheating – two different methods but with one purpose for use in hatchery. Can their interaction be twice as effective?


The increasing demand for simultaneous hatching of a large number of chicks has led to the need for refrigerated egg storage often over 7 days. This results in low embryo viability, low hatchability, and poor quality of chicks. To overcome these negative effects, chick producers follow a preincubation step, i.e., temporary warming of eggs to temperatures above physiological zero. Depending on the length of the planned storage, the age of the reproductive flock, and the poultry species, three different preincubation profiles can be used: single (PI), multiple with an equal number of hours for each PI (SPIDES), and increasing duration of elevated temperature with each successive PI (EG SPIDES). However, this technology does not overcome the negative effects of heating eggs too quickly or too slowly to the required incubation temperature. Currently, this issue increasingly affects commercial hatcheries, which face the challenge of simultaneously raising the temperature of a very large number of eggs. In this case, preheating by a gradual temperature increase, can help. Similar to preincubation, the preheating profile should be adjusted to the duration of egg storage and age and genotype of the reproductive flocks. As both methods have the same goal but different mechanisms of action and are used at different stages of egg storage, the analysis of their interaction will be crucial to further improve hatching efficiency in the future.

What do we know about the impacts of poultry catching?


The global demand for food production, poultry has contributed significantly to the supply of protein. Industries, as an important link in the production chain, aim to serve the consumer market, which increasingly seeks agility, economy, and quality in products and processes, especially for those related to animal and human welfare. This study highlighted the context of broiler chicken catching from the animal, human, and economic welfare perspective. A systematic review about literature was conducted in the three phases: definition of the research protocol, analysis of articles selected, and synthesis of the findings. After selecting descriptors/words and searching databases, inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 40 articles was selected. The findings showed that the publications on the subject started in Europe, South Africa, and North America in the 1980s. Poultry Science Journal with impact factor of 2,027 published the most of articles. The authors brought contributions in some areas, such as lesions, dead on arrival (DOA) at the slaughterhouse, and consumer perception on animal welfare (AW). Finally, the mechanized catching has the potential to replace manual catching providing health and welfare benefits for animals and workers, besides cost savings.

Nanoparticles applications in poultry production: An updated review


Nanotechnology is an innovative promising technology that has a great scope of applications as well as a socio-economic potential in poultry industry sector. Nanoparticles (NPs) show advantages of high absorption and bioavailability with more effective delivering to the target tissue compared to their bulk particles. Nanomaterials show variable forms, sizes, shapes, applications, surface modifications, charges and natures. Top-down and bottom-up methods are the common types of NPs preparation. There are different mechanisms through them NPs could exert their action. In poultry field, NPs have been considered in diagnosis of many diseases using different techniques, vaccines preparations and immuno-stimulation, disinfection, production enhancement, detection of food adulteration and antimicrobial activities (antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic, antifungal) and antimycotoxins. As a result of enhancement of poultry production and reducing the bacterial load after using NPs, the antibiotics drug resistance obstacle can be overcome. Despite the wide benefits of using NPs in poultry production, some concerns about their safety and hazardous effects should be regarded. Therefore, this review article is focused on NPs’ types, manufacture, mode of actions, different applications with reference to safety and hazards impact.

Possibilities of productive and reproductive performance improvement in geese: Part I - genetic factors


Goose is a poultry species modest in terms of breeding conditions, that enters breeding relatively late. These birds are characterized by the lowest production of eggs during the season, lower fertility and lower degree of hatchability than any other species of poultry. The productive and reproductive abilities of geese are depending on genetic and numerous non-genetic factors. The right choice of the genotype, adequate application of the breeding technology and incubation of eggs, as well as thoroughly planned selection, can greatly improve the reproductive properties of geese. Selection of genotypes and selection work for their improvement should be in accordance with regional breeding conditions, which allow maximum expression of genetic potential and conservation of animal genetic resources.

Characterization of indigenous helmeted guinea fowls in Nigeria for meat and egg production


There is increasing interest in sustainable poultry production in developing economies. This review provides an insight into guinea fowl production in Nigeria as a means of additional high quality poultry meat and egg production. Under the smallholder scavenging system, flock size of the four investigated plumages (Pearl, Lavender, Black and White) of indigenous helmeted guinea fowl in Nigeria typically ranges from 6-9 birds per household, 14-week mean live weight from 917-975 g, dressed weight at this age from 700-737 g and dressing percentage from 74-76%. Under the backyard system of production, mean egg number is typically about 80 eggs per hen/annum while under intensive management it can be up to 147 eggs per hen/annum and egg weight from 29 to 38 g. Under smallholder conditions, hatchability of fertile eggs can range from 70 to 86% while under improved housing and rearing conditions it can be as high as 89%. The present information could be exploited in formulating appropriate management strategies and breeding decisions for sustainable production of hybrid improved guinea fowls, thereby contributing to food security in Nigeria.

Strengthening smallholder engagement and integration in the Rwandan commercial broiler value chain


The emerging broiler value chain in Rwanda has the potential to increase domestic meat supply to meet increasing demand for protein and micronutrients and address the challenge of stunting. Smallholders operate the majority of farm enterprises in Rwanda, but have typically been limited to village poultry production. Meanwhile, larger modern enterprises have been the primary suppliers of broilers to the commercial market. However, hybrid, asset-building broiler operations are a third production model that represent a potential avenue for smallholder poultry intensification. The integration of this model into the Rwandan broiler sector provides greater opportunity for domestic producers to meet Rwandan government targets for supply of animal-sourced foods, while generating livelihood opportunities for smallholders. This paper provides an overview of the commercial broiler value chain and outlines lessons learned from a pilot project that employed this third production model. Challenges to smallholder engagement in the Rwanda commercial broiler value chain cut across input supply, production, post-harvest and marketing, and have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, multiple opportunities exist to strengthen smallholder engagement and integration into the Rwandan commercial broiler value chain. These include: reducing the recurring costs of production; providing value chain trainings; facilitating microfinancing; reducing post-harvest costs; increasing local demand for broiler meat; and strengthening policies in support of smallholders.


Branch News


The Argentinean Branch of the World´s Poultry Science Association (WPSA) organized, together with the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA), a free webinar entitled: ‘Trends in intestinal health in poultry’ on November 5, 2021. Three primary presentations were made during the webinar, which was presented in Spanish:

  • Physiology of the digestive system by Fernando Rutz, Pelotas Federal University, Brazil;
  • Enteric inflammatory models and use of biomarkers by Guillermo Tellez, University of Arkansas, USA;
  • Trends in the control of avian coccidiosis by Ernesto Vignoni, Lujan National University, Argentina.

The webinar lasted three hours, and it had nearly 250 participants. The event was recorded and can be viewed through the following link:

Bernardo Iglesias, Secretary, Argentinean Branch


The 2021 edition of the ‘FACTA International Coccidiosis Symposium’ was organized by the APINCO Foundation for Poultry Science and Technology and had the presence of specialists in a subject that, despite being widely known in the poultry sector, still presents big challenges.

The online event had themed panel discussions and debates, which were translated into English and brought together around 225 participants from 17 countries.

According to FACTA's Marketing Director, Marcelo Zuanaze, the Symposium showed how important it is for industrial aviculture to stand together in face of the difficulties that may arise. “In this event, we have reunited a team with unparalleled know-how, representing all links of the aviculture production chain. This means that we are tirelessly working to achieve the highest level of excellence in the sector. For that, we must always stand together, seeking the best alternatives for the sanitary control of our flocks", he argued. 

FACTA WSPA-Brazil 2022 Conference has already been scheduled

The 38th edition of the FACTA WSPA - Brazil Conference has been confirmed. It will take place between May 10 and 11, 2022 at Expo D. Pedro, in Campinas (SP), in a hybrid format. The theme of the event will be ‘Aviculture, the future is now’, continuing a tradition of more than 30 years of promoting high quality debates for professionals and students in the sector who want to be up to date and contribute positively to the global aviculture scenario.

In this edition, the organization will cover topics related to environmental, social, and corporate governance. "We want to create a collective awareness in the poultry sector for it to continuously progress in terms of sustainability", explains Ariel Mendes, FACTA President.

The entity expects more than 400 attendants, who will have the opportunity of hearing the latest words on the theme of Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG), as well as expanding their knowledge about the current situation and prospects for the grain market; electricity availability; presentation of a containment model for exotic diseases such as Avian Anemia, Newcastle and Gumboro; trends and changes in the types of aviary products available in the post-pandemic market; workforce training on the use of data collection and house autonation information systems; among others.

FACTA will organize a workshop on infectious bronchitis, laryngotracheitis, and avian influenza

On December 15, FACTA will organize a 100% online workshop on infectious bronchitis, laryngotracheitis, and avian influenza. Set to start at 8:30 a.m., the lectures will comprise: Bronchitis virus and transmission; Current panorama of infectious bronchitis variant strains; Influenza in Europe and its global consequences; Latest advances on laryngotracheitis; Overview of Brazilian laws on bronchitis, laryngotracheitis and influenza; Impacts of bronchitis, laryngotracheitis, and influenza on Brazilian production. There will also be two panels on ‘Infectious bronchitis and laryngotracheitis in Brazil’ and ‘Strategies for the control of laryngotracheitis and bronchitis’

2022: Symposium on broiler production

FACTA begins its 2022 event schedule with a course on industrial aviculture that will take place between February 15 and 24, completely online. The symposium will cover egg incubation (15/02), broiler breeders (17/02), broilers (22/02), and slaughter and processing (24/02).

The themes related to broiler breeders are strongly practice oriented, such as: facilities and equipment; rearing females for maximum productivity; female and fertile egg management; male management for maximum fertility; feed and nutrition programmes; biosecurity and law; residue management in broiler breeder houses; trends in automation.

The content related to incubation and eggs will bring together all areas of technical knowledge related to hatcheries: building aspects, ventilation systems, proper residue management, management practices for fertile eggs, incubators and hatcheries, data collection and analysis systems, disinfection, and contamination control.

The broiler module will approach the following themes: equipment, initial management practices, pickup and transportation, environment, plague control, sanitation and biosecurity, alternative energy production and water usage systems, Salmonella analysis and control.

Finally, the subjects of the slaughter and processing module will be: pre-slaughter, management practices for the suspension and bleeding area, defeathering, evisceration, slaughterhouse water and energy use optimization, traceability, control of chemical and biological meat contaminants.

Carla Palermo - FACTA WPSA Brazil (), Event & Communications


The French Branch of WPSA is co-organiser of the JRA-JRPFG (French Poultry Research days) in Tours 9 and 10 March 2022, see At this occasion the Branch will hold its General Assembly (9 March 2022) and organise a job dating between students and professionals of the poultry sector.

The priority of the French Branch for the coming months remains the organisation of the 26th WPC with

  • a series of online thematic webinars to value the abstracts submitted to the 26th WPC in 2019 and accepted in 2020.
  • A final face-to-face WPC meeting in Paris, 7-11 August 2022: The Branch will make every effort to welcome the largest possible number of delegates at the 'Palais des Congrès de Paris' and offer a complementary online programme.
  • The Branch is grateful to all of those who helped and continue helping in the organisation of these events and especially to the early sponsors for their continuous support despite the two successive postponements of the 26th WPC.

Dr Michel DUCLOS, Secretary of WPSA French Branch and Dr Christophe BOSTVIRONNOIS, President of WPSA French Branch


The XII European Symposium on Poultry Genetics is being planned for Hannover, during 2022. Information will follow.

Inga Tiemann, Secretary, German Branch


A meeting to initiate research collaboration in poultry nutrition between members of Regional Representative for West Java, DKI Jakarta and Banten - WPSA Indonesia with industry (PT. EW Nutrition Innovations Indonesia) was conducted on the 9th of November 2021 in Bogor. The meeting highlighted the important topics and other technical aspects of upcoming research collaboration that will be run in 2022. This research collaboration is under the Synergy Programme scheme that already discussed in the previous member meeting (28 August 2021).

On the 15th of November 2021, Regional Representative for West Java, DKI Jakarta and Banten conducted ‘Inspirational Idea Competition: My Idea to Develop Indonesian Poultry’ in order to in commemorate The National Chicken and Egg Day. The aim of this competition is mainly to raise spirit of tomorrow people (student) in pronounced their inspirational ideas related to poultry development in Indonesia. The ideas of honourable winners are also being delivered to public by using mass media publications in order to spread the positive vibes of ideas for others. There were 3 judges in this competition, namely: (1). Ir Sugiono, MP (Director of Breeding and Animal Production, Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture of Republic Indonesia, (2). Dr Marissa Grace Haque, S.H., M.Hum., M.B.A., M.H., M.Si. (public figure, lecturer and writer), and (3). M. Domi Sattyananda, S.Pt. (Poultry Indonesia). The competition was participated by junior high school (10.7%), senior high school (21.4%), and graduate student (64.3%).

The Regional Representative for West Java, DKI Jakarta and Banten - WPSA Indonesia will launch a new programme named STARTER (Sehari Terinspirasi in Bahasa or INSPIRED DAY) by organizing a mini webinar on the 18th of December 2021. This programme is designed to deliver sciences, technologies, knowledge’s and experiences among members. The special topic that will be presented in the STARTER series 1 is Recent Advances in Role of Insect in Poultry Nutrition, which will be presented by member of WPSA Indonesia, Dr Yuni Cahya Endrawati, SPt., MSi. (Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University).


After a 2-year postponement due to the Covid 19 pandemic, we are happy to announce that we are currently busy with preparations for our 55th Annual Conference which will take place on March 6-8 2022, at Hotel Pastoral in Kibbutz Kfar Blum located in the Upper Galilee. During the 2-day conference, we plan to conduct lectures and round table discussions of interest for those connected to poultry science and the poultry industry. Simultaneously with the lectures, approximately 30 companies will exhibit their products and latest innovations in the Poultry industry.

We expect to host about 500 participants, in accordance with the Israeli Ministry of Health guidelines.

Yitzhak Malta, Secretary, Israel Branch


The Italian Branch of WPSA is organizing the 56th edition of its annual meeting that will be held on April 22th, 2022 at the Palacongressi of Rimini (Italy) and it will deal with 'Are we pushing broiler to their biological limits?'. This emerging topic will be explored thanks to the contributions of a number of prestigious international speakers such as Ilkka Leinonen (Natural Resources Institute, Finland), Birger Svihus (Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway) and Avigdor Cahaner (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel).

espnOn the day before, WG2 members will visit the 'Rimini Conference Center' where the 23rd edition of European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition (ESPN) will be hosted from June 21-24, 2023. The city of Rimini, is an ideal place for the European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition and the modern as well as eco-friendly Venue is the perfect stage for the event. Many attendees including both poultry research scientists and practitioners, leading speakers from across the world joining together to explore the past, share the present and helping to forge the future of poultry meat science. More details are already available at the Symposia website:

Massimiliano Petracci, Secretary, Italian Branch of WPSA


The 2021 Autumn Meeting for the Japan Poultry Science Association (JPSA) was held online (web) style on Thursday, September 16 from 9:00 am to 5:30 pm, Japan standard time. The meeting contained 26 original research presentations, a general meeting, and an online seminar conducted by the Young Members' Executive Committee of JPSA. Although the meeting was an online style, it was a great success.

In the Autumn Meeting, Excellent Presentation Awards were given under the category, ‘student member’ or ‘regular member aged 30 yrs. or below,’ for the following presentations: 1) ‘Elucidation of immune function of avian gut-associated lymphoid tissues via histological studies’ by Ryota Hirakawa (Tohoku Univ. Lab. of Functional Morphology); and 2) ‘Effect of feeding manufacturing processed residues of mixed fermented loquat leaf tea on development and meat quality of Tsushima-Jidori crossbred chickens’ by Shogo Matsunaga (Nagasaki Agri. For. Tech. Develop. Center). JPSA congratulates all of these presenters who received Excellent Presentation Awards during our Autumn 2021 Meeting.

The Young Members' Executive Committee of JPSA made an online seminar entitled ‘What kind of research is required now at the poultry farming site? – in Japan and other countries’ on September 16during 0:10 pm - 1:10 pm, on September 16 during lunch hour for the Autumn Meeting. Although knowing the needs of poultry production sites is indispensable for effectively gaining valid research results, researchers have less opportunity to know the current state of these production sites. For this seminar, Dr Takehiko Hayakawa, Asia-Pacific Regional Manager of DSM Nutritional Products, gave a lecturer on ‘knowledge needed now at poultry production sites in Japan and overseas’. His presentation clearly explained about the differences in focus on poultry research subjects between the researchers in Japan and in other countries. Dr Hayakawa additionally provided some good ideas about the challenges for the poultry industry from a global perspective. It was a very nice online seminar.

The 2022 Spring Meeting of JPSA will be held online style on Tuesday, March 29, 2022. The meeting will contain original research presentations and a general meeting. In addition, award ceremonies for 2021 will also be held. A public symposium that is being put together by JPSA volunteers will also be held on the afternoon of March 28, 2022. Details of the Spring Meeting and symposium will be soon be announced on the JPSA web site ( JPSA will welcome a wide participation over the glove.

The Journal of Poultry Science (JPS), the official scientific journal of JPSA, obtained an Impact Factor of 1.425 from Clarivate Analytics. The JPS is also a member of PubMed Central (PMC), and the articles of the journal can be accessed through the PubMed search engine ( Moreover, JPS is now also available on the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) database (

JPSA welcomes original research articles and review papers to be submitted for the JPS using the following website: Free access to download the full-published articles in JPS is available on J-Stage (, which provides an excellent opportunity for all to access complete published articles.

JPSA would like to contribute to the Poultry Science in Japan and over the globe by enhancing the international activities with the members from different countries. Thus, JPSA has a membership category for foreign citizens residing abroad as ‘Special International Member’. The page charges to publish their papers in the JPS will be set at a membership price. JPSA invariably welcomes new members from all over the world. Please visit the JPSA website ( for further information.

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to make a tough situation in the world, but JPSA hopes things will get better soon. Please take good care of yourself!

Naoki Goto, Secretary of WPSA Japan Branch

New Zealand

The New Zealand branch of WPSA will be holding its 2021 NEW ZEALAND POULTRY INDUSTRY CONFERENCE in Nelson, New Zealand on the 5th and 6th of October 2021. For details contact Reza Abdollahi at:

Reza Abdollahi, Secretary, New Zealand branch


The XX International Scientific Conference, organized by the Russian Branch of WPSA, was held from 27-30 September, 2021 in Sergiev Possad near Moscow. The motto of the Conference was: ‘World and Russian poultry production: current state, dynamics of development and innovation prospects’. This Conference coincided with the 90th anniversary of the All Russian Research and Technological Institute of Poultry Husbandry (VNITIP). Established in 1930, VNITIP was the first and leading scientific institution in the country in charge of research and development in fields of poultry genetics and breeding, nutrition, incubation, physiology, technology of rearing and keeping of all species of farm poultry, economics and management in poultry industry. The results of the Institute’s investigations became widely introduced into the practice and acted as a base for establishing of the large-scale industrial type poultry production in the USSR and in Russian Federation. Besides research activities VNITIP acts as the leading educational and professional development centre. Over the past 90 years over 10000 people received here their scientific education and training. The professional development courses of VNITIP are very popular among the representatives of poultry industry. Only during the last 5 years more than 2400 people (poultry enterprises’ directors and specialists) received their trainings in VNITIP.

Currently the VNITIP’s staff consists of 115 people, among them two academics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, one corresponding academician, 14 scientists with degree of Dr Habil., 33 with degree of PhD., 15 Laureates of the Prize of the Government of the Russian Federation in the field of science and technology, researchers, economists, engineers and service personnel. The Institute has a postgraduate course, where postgraduate students from various parts of Russia and some foreign countries conduct research and get their scientific degrees. In VNITIP various scientific books and papers were published, methodological recommendations and other scientific literature on poultry production. Priority developments of the Institute's scientists are protected by copyright certificates and patents of the Russian Federation. More than 50 specialists of the Institute are members of the WPSA. On the base of the Institute the International conferences of the Russian Branch of WPSA are held regularly. The current, XX Conference attracted participants and guests from various regions of Russia and foreign countries. It was opened by a welcome speech of the Director of VNITIP Dr Dmitry Efimov. The Scientific Head of VNITIP, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Vladimir Fisinin made a plenary presentation ‘VNITIP 90 years. Scientists and historical aspects of research investigations’ where he highlighted the history of the Institute, its achievements, areas of current investigations and prospects for the future. The welcome speeches to the Conference participants were made by the representatives of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture, Russian Poultry Union, Poultry Union of Kazakhstan, Poultry Union of Belarus and other organizations.

The scientific programme if the Conference was focused on four sections:

  1. Genetics and breeding of poultry.
  2. Nutrition of poultry.
  3. Technology of egg and poultry meat production. Technology of egg and poultry meat processing. Economical aspects of poultry production.
  4. Veterinary and sanitary aspects of poultry production.

2021 december russiaIn total, more than 120 papers were presented. There were representatives from Russia, Belarus, Netherlands, Germany, Spain, France, Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Czech Republic. Despite the problems caused by the Covid-19 pandemic more than 230 people have taken part in the Conference.

The proceedings of the Conference contain of 783 pages, and included 236 papers. As a comparison in 1968 the proceedings of the Soviet national Branch of WPSA included only 12 papers. This reflects dynamic development of poultry science in Russia and its importance for poultry industry.

The Russian Branch of WPSA would like to thank their partners for their support and cooperation: Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Ministry of Education and Sciences, Russian Ministry of Agriculture, Russian Poultry Union, German Agricultural Society (DLG), WPSA and our numerous sponsors- companies Big Dutchman, Biotrof, Avivac, Phytobiotics-Rus, Agrovetzaschita, OOO’Research Center-23’, Hendrix Genetics, Bioamid, Innovad, Lalemand, Adisseo-Eurasia, Alltech, Aviagen, Agrotorg, Evonic Chemie, Quadros-Bio, Tocom-Elit, Novogen, BASF, BioMerieux, poultry enterprises Volzhanin, Elinar, Yaroslavsky Broiler, Prioskolye, Belgrankorm, Zernoproduct and other.

Sergey Cherepanov, Tatiana Vasilieva, Russian Branch of WPSA

Saudi Arabia

On behalf of the WPSA (Saudi Branch), it’s a pleasure to inform you that our branch and 'Higher Committee Members of The Middle East and North Africa' will organize the poultry conference titled 'Poultry Production under High Environmental Temperature'.

The conference will be held in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, March 14-16, 2022 at the International Convention and Exhibition Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 

All information is available at website:

We look forward to seeing you in Riyadh.

Yours Sincerely,

Prof. Ibrahim H. Al-Homidan (President)
Prof. Moataz M. Fathi (Secretary)
World's Poultry Science Association- Saudi Branch
E-mail:  / 


The Senegal branch of WPSA is in the process of organizing a meeting for the branch that will be called: Poultry Senegal 2022. Hopefully, that meeting will take hopefully take place during May, 2022 in partnership with the Senegal Ministry of Agriculture. More details will be provided in the coming months. For more information and/or input related to the planning of the meeting, see contact information below.

Prof. Ayao Missohou, Secretary Senegal branch
Ecole Inter-Etats des Sciences et Médecine Vétérinaires (EISMV), Dakar, Sénégal
Phone: 00221338651008, 00221338651022, 00221775751140


During its last board meeting, the WPSA Turkish Branch decided to put forward our candidacy for hosting one of the European Federation’s working group summits and to start with the necessary deliberations.

We also decided to organise some scientific panels/conferences etc. in order to revive our branch activities, which have been quite static since the start of the Covid pandemic.

Upon the request of some African countries, we have also agreed to form a scientific committee specialised in poultry production techniques to be sent to those countries to improve their production capacities.

Prof. Dr Kâzım Şahin, Secretary, WPSA Turkish Branch

United Kingdom

In the fervent hope that we will be able to meet again in person in 2022, the United Kingdom Branch has recently announced plans for its annual Spring Meeting. The Spring Meeting will take place on 13th-14th April at the De Vere East Midlands Conference Centre near Nottingham. This will be the first time the WPSA has met at this smart and modern conference facility. Once again, our meeting coincides with the annual conference of the British Society for Animal Science. A long-term arrangement, this has helped to provide additional networking and learning opportunities for all delegates.

The upcoming Spring Meeting provides us with the chance to trial a hybrid meeting format. While this involves some additional costs, it will allow delegates to choose for the first time whether to participate in person or remotely. As well as a useful experience for us as conference organisers, it ensures the meeting can go ahead without a hitch, even if travel restrictions were to be imposed again. (We are obviously hoping that doesn’t happen!)

Dates of 22nd -24th August 2022 have been finalised for the re-scheduled 33rd Poultry Science Symposium (PSS) organised by the UK Branch. As originally planned for 2020, the meeting will be held at Clare College, University of Cambridge, U.K., and the theme is ‘Pre- and Probiotics: Nutritional, Veterinary and Production Perspectives’. Put the date in your diary, and watch out for further news on the website,

Finally, it is with regret that the Branch recently received news of the death of Shirley Wilson — formerly known as Shirley Murdoch. A long-time supporter of the turkey industry, Shirley organised the Technical Turkeys Conference from 1978 to 2006. This developed to become an essential part of the calendar for the international turkey industry. Apart from COVID-related interruptions, this annual event has continued as the Turkey Science and Production Conference organised by Dr James Bentley.

Jackie Linden, WPSA UK Branch Secretary

World Veterinary Education in Production Animal Health (WVEPAH)

wvepah oie uni lu

WVEPAH is a branch of the ‘European Association for Veterinary Specialization’ (EAVS), a non-profit organization registered in Luxembourg since 1989. In 1992 EAVS created the ‘European School for Advanced Veterinary Studies’ (ESAVS, which offers high quality continuing education and is officially affiliated with the University of Luxembourg. WVEPAH has a similar structure as the ESAVS and is also affiliated with and supported by the OIE and includes OIE standards and regulations in its training programmes.

WVEPAH programmes consist of a series of courses in a particular field of poultry health and production. A typical study programme is composed of two online courses.

Courses include pre-recorded courses and LIVE meetings. Each course is taught by course masters who are internationally recognized specialists in their field and have excellent didactic skills.

The courses are designed for those professionals in the poultry industry who wish to broaden their knowledge in the area of poultry health and production with strong emphasis on health management. Intensive training is provided at an advanced level with major emphasis on a case oriented and problem-solving approach.

Participants of WVEPAH programmes acquire new skills and knowledge which they can immediately apply in their daily field activities.

Participants also have the possibility to pursue a Certificate in Animal Health: Poultry Production diploma, after completion of the two modules, including a section on regulation taught by the OIE, and the submission of the analysis of 25 clinical cases. This diploma is delivered by the University of Luxembourg and the regulatory aspects are validated by the OIE.

List of courses, dates, registration conditions see:

WPSA Calendar

For all WPSA meetings see the WPSA Calendar

Date: 30 November 2023

Travel Grant Programme

For information about the Travel Grant Programmes click here.


Travel Grants can only be requested for WPSA events.

Only WPSA members can apply.


Travel Grant application forms

Speakers' Bureau Programme

For information about the Speakers' Bureau Programme click here.


Branch Development Proposal

In the Board meeting held during WPC2016 in Beijing, China, the Board decided to increase the funds available for Branch Development by making a formal call for Branch Development Proposals.
The maximum budget for a proposal is US$4,000.

Deadlines for submission are January 1st and July 1st.


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