|Volume 38, January 2017||Newsletter Editor: Dr G.B. Havenstein,|
Board meeting 2017: The next board meeting will be held 8 May 2017 in Salou, Spain, in connection with the European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition.
Promotion of WPSA: In January 2017, WPSA will have a stand at the International Production and Processing Expo (IPPE) in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. In March 2017, WPSA will be present at VIV Asia, Bangkok, Thailand, in April at AGRA Middle East in Dubai, UAE. Members are welcome to visit the WPSA booth at these exhibitions.
The programme of the Poultry Outlook Forum in Dubai, 10-12 April, will soon be available at www.wpsa.com and www.agramiddleeast.com.
WPSA materials have been and will be distributed during several (branch) meetings. Materials to be distributed and requests for materials can be send to .
Branch and future meetings: 2-4 March, the International Poultry Show and Seminar in Dhaka, Bangladesh organized by the Bangladesh WPSA branch will be attended.
There are plans for the organization of a Poultry Conference Africa to be held in Kigali, Rwanda, 3-5 October 2017. More info can be requested from the secretary.
Poultry day: In 2012, the Hungarian WPSA branch initiated the International Poultry Meat Day. On this day in May, the Branch organized one of their meetings. Following this initiative, as for the International Egg Day, organizations, associations and their branches are asked to organize meetings or activities during this period under this common theme.
Cooperation with the organization on World Veterinary Education in Production Animal Health (WVEPAH): The WVEPAH, a non-profit organization organizes training courses on poultry (for 3 à 4 weeks) in several countries (www.wvepah.org). Activities will be announced on our website and in the WPS Journal.
Dr Roel Mulder
As 2017 begins, I can report good news to you, the members of WPSA. Our investment portfolio had a 7.46% return in 2016. You may have read of some portfolios performing much better than this. However, we must always remember that the WPSA portfolio is designed in a very conservative way and also includes international investment. The post-United States election stock rally was strong, but bonds were down 20%. To have balance in changing markets, WPSA's portfolio contains bond components. Our 7.46% return is NET return. So do take care if you look at comparing our return to published returns of other portfolios. They may be reporting ‘un-costed’ performance on purely American investments and are not a fair comparison.
After a couple of weeks of strong performance this January, the stock market has pulled back. Our portfolio's performance year-to-date is 1.95%.
I have been very busy working with our Certified Public Accountant (CPA) to have all our financial records prepared for the May WPSA Board Meeting. Please look for your Board members at ESPN in Salou, Spain.
If you will be attending the IPPE in Atlanta, please stop by the WPSA booth. Plans are for all the Executive Committee members to be in Atlanta.
In the spirit of our most recent Congress in Beijing, I wish you all a Happy Chinese New Year. We should all celebrate, as this will be the Year of the Chicken, specifically the Fire or Red Chicken Year!
Dr Francine Bradley
Dubrovnik, Croatia, 17-21 September 2018
The Croatian local organizing committee of XV EPC 2018 is fully engaged in the organisation and have held numerous meetings during the year. Contacts have been made with potential sponsors and participants. The sponsors of EPC 2018 will have the opportunity to promote their company’s products and solutions to a wide range of decision makers and stakeholders within the poultry industry, as well as to leading poultry scientists. If you are interested to participate or to sponsor EPC 2018, please visit www.epc2018.com or contact the Croatian branch at .
The European Federation has numerous conferences planned between now and the end of 2017.
News from a number of European Federation's working groups is provided below.
WPSA European Working Group News
Breeding & Genetics
10th European Symposium on Poultry Genetics, 26-28 June 2017 in St Malo, France
We are pleased to announce the 10th European Symposium on Poultry Genetics. The Symposium will be held from 26-28 June 2017 in St Malo, France. The symposium is open for registration and abstracts are welcome. Deadline for submission is March 1st, 2017. Accepted abstracts will be presented as posters. Young scientists as PhD students and postdocs may be selected to benefit from free registration by the scientific committee based on their abstracts. Up to 4 fellowships will be distributed and the winners will present their work orally. The scientific programme will contain sessions on genetics of welfare traits, health and immune system, genomics and diversity, and new breeding technologies in poultry. The scientific contributions from invited speakers and poster presentations will be significant and impactful.
For more details, please look at: http://www.wpsa.fr/congres/EuropeanPoutryGenetics/Authors.html
We are looking forward to welcoming you at the next Poultry Genetics Symposium in 2017.
On behalf of the organizing committee
Quality of Poultry Meat and Quality of Eggs and Egg Products
EGGMEAT 2017: Registration and abstract submission is now open!
The organising committee of EGGMEAT2017 is looking forward to welcoming all those interested in the science and application of science to the egg and poultry meat industry, to join them in Edinburgh on 3-5th September 2017. Edinburgh has a rich history and is a modern vibrant city so our delegates and accompanying persons will be able to enjoy some of its attractions as well as the surrounding coasts, hills and the not so distant highlands.
The poultry industry relies on science and its application and these meetings are important in making sure we keep advancing to meet the biggest challenges the world faces in terms of sustainable food supply. EGGMEAT2017 provides an ideal forum for young and established researchers to communicate their science and to meet and interact with stakeholders from both the egg and meat sectors of the poultry industry.
Our scientific programme promises to be both inspiring and thought provoking and we are delighted to announce that both registration and abstract submission for EGGMEAT2017 is now open.
Prominent invited speakers from American and European Institutions have already confirmed their participation. They will address emerging issues on poultry meat and egg products.
Friday, 31 March 2017 Abstract submission
Sunday, 30 April 2017 Abstract acceptance
Thursday, 01 June 2017 End of early bird registration
Visit http://eggmeat2017.efconference.co.uk/ to keep you updated. Submission deadline is31 March, 2017. Special reduced registration fees are available for WPSA members and students.
Maureen Bain, Chairperson WG4
Massimiliano Petracci, Chairperson WG5
Incubation Fertility Research Group (IFRG-WPSA Working Group 6), Report meeting 2016, Brugge, Belgium, 4-6 December 2016
The 2016 meeting of the IFRG-WPSA Working Group 6 was organized in Brugge, a historical city located in the north-east of Belgium. Despite the timing close to the December festivities, 44 participants joined the conference in Hotel de’Medici located at the Potterei central Brugge. The slow registration response was notable, probably because of the World Poultry Congress Beijing in September. At the end of October only 16 delegates had registered. Nevertheless, with a little bit of patience and an interesting programme, not the least because we received many presentations and posters from PhD students and researchers from INRA France, acceptable delegate numbers were achieved.
The programme concentrated on three major topics/themes relevant for fundamental and applied fertility and incubation research: (1) nutrition of embryo and hatchling, (2) conservation of endangered species and (3) fertilisation physiology. The first session focused on nutrition of the embryo and hatchling during the first days after hatch. Prof. Zehava Uni from Hebrew University opened this session presenting an overview of changing metabolic needs of the developing embryo and orchestrated transport of nutrients from albumen and yolk and extra-embryonic membranes. Limitations of minerals during critical hatching period might induce a mineral deficiency during the last days of incubation. Prof Uni was sponsored by incubator manufacturers HatchTech, Petersime and Pas Reform.
The second speaker, Dr. Henri Woelders from Wageningen University, focused on the relation between early microbial colonisation of the intestine and gut immunological functions. Later in this session, Mylène Da Silva, Department Reproduction Physiology, INRA Nouzilly, discussed the development and biological functions of amniotic protein profiles as shown by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. For example, in the second week of incubation amniotic fluid develops proteolytic and antibacterial activities.
The more applied topics related to ‘early feeding’ were discussed by three speakers. Okan Elibol from Ankara University, sponsored by Aviagen, showed the results of a very detailed study on early feeding of hatched chicks. In this study, a clear definition of the moment of access to feed after hatching was used. It was concluded that post hatch holding for up to 40 hours after hatching had no major detrimental effects on final live performance.
Dr. Hilke Willemsen, Aviagen UK, and Dr. Inge Reijrink, HatchTech, both compared the vitality (quality) of chicks hatched in an environment where feed and water are available immediately after hatching. Dr. Inge Reijrink clearly showed that chicks from the traditional hatcher showed more signs of dehydration compared to those from the HatchCare system. Dr. Hilke Willemsen focused on the behaviour of chicks hatched in the broiler house. A higher percentage of chicks hatched in the broiler house were resting compared to chicks hatched in a traditional hatcher. The behaviour differences disappeared after six days post-hatch. The last speaker of this session Seline Schallier, University of Leuven, discussed transgenerational effects of protein undernutrition of breeders on egg weights. Low protein feed in parent generations reduced egg weights in the F2 generation, even if F2 hens were fed a standard control diet.
For the second session entitled ‘Preservation of endangered species’ two speakers were invited. Dr. Elisabeth Blesbois, Reproductive Physiology and Behaviours, INRA Tours, showed promising progresses in cryopreservation techniques of primordial germ cells and semen. For the latter, new methods of semen phenotyping have been developed such that the resistance to cryopreservation of semen can be predicted. Dr. Patricia Brekke, Institute of Zoology, London presented data on hatching failure in the endangered New Zealand bird called the hihi (Notiomystis cincta). Hatching failure is higher in threatened birds compared to other bird populations. The hihi is shown to be a good example where low levels of fertility and higher embryonic mortality were highlighted in the threatened small hihi population.
The third session ‘Sperm, fertilization and embryo physiology’, was reserved for oral and poster presentations by researchers and PhD students from INRA Tours, Nouzilly. The results of research presented in this session showed the power of large groups of scientists collaborating in multi-disciplinary research projects. Sarah-Anne David showed how cyclic increases of incubation temperature and relative humidity from E7 to E16 increased the thermotolerance of chickens. The cyclic changes in the incubation environment were associated with altered metabolic activity and expression of genes up to slaughter age. In the context of this presentation, a poster was presented showing adaptive capacities of broiler chickens after incubation climate changes.
Dr. Nadine Gérard, INRA Tours, Nouzilly presented a detailed overview of the relationship between fertility and uterine fluid composition in sperm storage tubuli. Related to this theme a total of five posters by PhD students were presented. Electron microscopical techniques, immune-cytochemical methods, biostatistics and molecular functional analysis were used to reveal uterine proteins involved in sperm survival in the hen oviduct.
The final two oral presentations sponsored by Aviagen. Firstly Tolga Erkus showed the positive effects of egg storage at 15°C and one SPIDES treatment at five days after storage. Dr. Dinah Nicholson closed the session by reviewing the history of poultry breeding and artificial incubation. For the future, Dr. Nicholson envisions a formaline-free hatchery with hatching practiced on the farm.
Two more interesting posters were presented. These being: (1) a detailed description of embryonic development of domestic guinea fowl presented (M. Marzoni, University of Pisa) and Marine Dewez (Hybrid Turkeys) presented that that the CT scan is a good tool to predict body composition in reproductive hens.
Dr. Marleen Boerjan, President IFRG
Incubation and Fertility Research Group on Reproduction
Bangladesh - The 10th International Poultry Show and Seminar, 2-4 March 2017, International Convention City Bashundhara, Dhaka. For details www.wpsa-bb.com
Taiwan - The 6th World Waterfowl Conference, 22-25 October 2017, Howard International Service House, Taipei. For details www.wwc2017.tw
Thailand - The 11th Asia Pacific Poultry Conference, March 2018, Bangkok
Indonesia branch membership
Congratulations to the Indonesia branch on their membership drive which has recently netted new members. All our branches should always be on the lookout for new members.
Alan Gibbins, President Asian/Pacific Federation
WPSA Asian-Pacific Working Group News
The followings are some important dates:
|Online Abstract Submission System Open||00:00 (GMT+8), February 15, 2017|
|Online Abstract Submission Deadline||23:59 (GMT+8), May 31, 2017|
|Notification of Acceptance||23:59 (GMT+8), June 30, 2017|
|Early Bird Registration Deadline||23:59 (GMT+8), August 31, 2017|
For more details, please refer to the WWC 2017 website: http://www.wwc2017.tw/ScientificProgram.html
Dr Jeng-Fang Huang, Chairperson
The WPSA Chilean Branch met at 31 May 2016 in Santiago de Chile, at the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Chile. The theme of the meeting was ‘Poultry production without antibiotics and growth promoting antibiotics’. Over 100 participants (from university, government, industry, students) registered for this one day event.
Speakers were Dr. Hector Cervantes, Phibro Animal Health, USA, Dr. Jan Dirk van der Klis, Biomin, Austria and Dr. Roel Mulder, Secretary General of WPSA, The Netherlands.
The history of the use of antibiotics in poultry production and the reasons for the ban on this use, as nowadays in many countries, were discussed. The alarming increase of antibiotic resistance in microorganisms and the lack of available efficient treatment of bacterial diseases in human medicine are main reasons for this ban. There are no alternatives to replace antibiotics for therapeutic use, but many products are available to replace the use of growth promoting antibiotics in poultry production. The use of these products in many cases may reduce production performance parameters; antibiotic resistance can be reduced over the years. The use of vegetable products, organic acids, essential oils was discussed.
It became clear that research has not given all answers to this problem and more studies are needed.
The Croatian Branch held its annual meeting in December 2016, with the majority of topics related to upcoming organisation of the XV European Poultry Conference (EPC) 2018 and Poultry Days 2017. The latter is a biannual symposium with international participation hosted by the WPSA – Croatian Branch, in Sibenik, Croatia, on 10-13 May 2017. Poultry Days is a Croatian focused symposium which attracts around 200 participants – scientists, poultry producers, and veterinarians from Croatia and other European countries. Scientific and professional experts will present, via oral and poster presentations, a wide variety of scientific topics including poultry diseases, nutrition and production.
The 9th International Poultry Conference of the Egyptian Poultry Science Association, 7–10 November 2016, Hurghada, Red Sea, Egypt
The Egyptian Poultry Science Association has provided a scientific platform, in collaboration with the World Poultry Science Association - Egypt branch, to present more than 90 papers regarding all aspects of the poultry industry. More than 150 scientists and researchers from Egyptian universities, research centres and other parts of the world confirmed the need to rely on local poultry breeds and highlighted the need for improvements in these breeds and the development of welfare and feeding systems. Prof. Dr. Mohamed Abdel Moneim Kosba, Chairman of the IPC conference, concluded that the most important recommendation was the need to increase the budget for scientific research in the field of poultry production to improve meat and egg production. This conference is held every two years and it is expected to next take place next in November, 2018 in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt. This conference is organised by the Egyptian Poultry Science Association, based in the Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, which is the oldest specialised scientific association for poultry science in the Middle East and North Africa.
Poultry Research Days and General Assembly
The 12th French Poultry Research Days (12èmes Journées de la Recherche Avicole et Palmipèdes à Foie Gras), held under the auspices of the French branches of WPSA and WVPA, will take place on 5-6 April 2017, at Vinci Congress Centre in Tours, France. The scientific programme is available at http://www.itavi.asso.fr/jra/2017. The French Branch of WPSA will hold its annual general assembly at the same venue, 5 April, and will include the election of new board members.
Coming meetings organized by the French Branch of WPSA in 2017:
- Xth European Symposium on Poultry Welfare, Dates: 19-22 June 2017, Venue: Ploufragan, France. Website: http://www.poultrywelfare2017.com/
• The Call for Abstracts for posters is extended. DEADLINE: 15 January 2017
• Registration is open
- 10th European Symposium on Poultry Genetics, Dates: 26-28 June 2017, Venue: Saint-Malo, France. Website: http://wpsa.fr/congres/EuropeanPoutryGenetics/Index%20ESPG.html
• The Call for Abstracts for posters is open. DEADLINE: 1 March 2017
Michel Duclos, Branch Secretary
The German Branch of the WPSA continues to grow with 415 members at the end of 2016, of which more than 10% (43) are students.
The German Branch will hold its next annual meeting from 7-8 March 2017 in Hannover and we are looking forward to an interesting programme. Further information will soon be available on our website www.wpsa.de.
Anke Forester, Branch Secretary
The Italian Branch of WPSA is organizing the 52nd edition of its annual meeting that will be held on 6 April 2017 in Forlì. This meeting will address ‘Situation, changes and future of poultry industry around the Mediterranean Area’. This meeting will also allow the opportunity to launch the next edition of Mediterranean Poultry Summit that will be held in Italy in 2018. Any additional information can be received at our site: www.wpsa.it.
Massimiliano Petracci, Branch Secretary
The Japan Poultry Science Association (JPSA) spring meeting, will be held at Kobe University in late March, 2017. The meeting will consist of original paper presentations, a seminar along with council and general meetings. The council meeting will be held on 29 March. The paper presentations and the general meeting will be on 30 March. A seminar will also be held during the meeting with the cooperation of the young scientist council members of Japan Animal Science Association and JPSA. The details of the seminar will be announced soon. Since JPSA would like to create opportunities for future scientists, a poster session will be available during the spring meeting for high school students who are interested in the area of avian research. The deadline of abstract submission is 29 January for the paper and the poster sessions. Please browse the JPSA website (http://jpn-psa.jp/) for the details. JPSA welcomes abstract submissions from not only Japan but from other world areas.
The Journal of Poultry Science (JPS, the official journal of JPSA with a 5-year Impact Factor of 0.668) always welcomes the submission of reviews and original papers. JPSA would like to contribute to the poultry science around the world by enhancing the international activity with the members from different countries. Thus, JPSA has established a membership category for foreign citizens residing abroad as ‘Special International Member’. The page charges to publish their papers in JPS will be set at a membership price. JPSA continues to welcome new members from around the world. Please visit JPSA website (http://jpn-psa.jp/?lang=en) for further information.
Naoki Goto, Branch Secretary
Scientific communication with industry
The VNITIP Federal Scientific Centre of the Russian Science Academy in Serguiev Posad, Moscow Region, recognises the importance of scientific communication with the industry and has a program to encourage this effort. This famous institute celebrated 85 years of service last year. VNITIP scientists and experts have served science and poultry industry sectors during this time. Prof. V.I. Fisinin has led the Institute for more than 45 years. The Institute in Serguiev Posad has become a centre for experts during this period. Training courses are conducted at the Centre for poultry processors, feed mill and farm managers, veterinarians, zootechnicians, mechanical engineers and economists. Every year more than 1000 experts from Russia and abroad attend lectures from leading scientists in poultry industry areas, exchange experiences and discuss innovations from local and foreign poultry science efforts in Ptitsegrad.
All are welcome to attend the courses in Serguiev Posad.
The planned seminars for 2017 are:
|No.||The seminar theme||Date|
|1.||Actual problems and discussion of potential solutions in the modern practice of poultry egg incubation (for zootechnicians, veterinarians, incubation shop leaders and mechanics)||27 February- 4 March and 20-25 November|
|2.||New technologies and methods of improving the effectiveness of broiler meat production and processing (for technologists and experts in poultry meat production and processing)||20-25 March|
|3.||Modern technologies in feed production, feeding of high producing poultry crosses, control of feed and premix and biological additive safety and quality (for poultry farm and feed mill technologists, veterinarians, zoo- and vet-laboratory leaders, feed zootechnicians, professors)||
15-20 May and
|4.||The international poultry expert forum ‘Innovations in production as the base of poultry industry enterprise economic effectiveness’ (for poultry industry enterprise leaders and key poultry experts)||5-10 June|
|5.||The international poultry expert forum ‘Some economic aspects of poultry industry enterprise functioning effectiveness’ (for poultry industry enterprise financial and economic service leaders and experts, technologists)||18-23 September|
|7.||Progressive and resource conserving technologies in egg production and processing (for poultry enterprise leaders, technologists, zootechnicians, veterinarians, engineers and foremen, professors||16-21 October|
|6.||Selection and reproduction of high producing poultry crosses (for breeding farm leaders and experts)||13-18 November|
Additional information can be found at the website: www.vnitip.ru
Tatiana Vasilieva, Branch Secretary
The Turkish Branch has begun with the preparations for the biannual ‘National Poultry Congress’, which will be jointly organised with Niğde University in September 2018. The aim of encouraging international participation and addressing a wide array of topics key to poultry science and the industry remains essential to the congress. We hope that many of our friends will join us at this important congress.
We will hold our General Assembly Meeting on 25 January where a new Board of Directors will be elected.
Gülbenk Yalçın, Branch Secretary
The South African branch of the WPSA had a successful 2016, with the reintroduction of a Youth Programme for six students which culminated in attendance at our annual Scientific Day. This year’s Scientific Day experienced the highest ever attendance with a programme including local and international speakers. The theme of the day was ‘Understanding and Facing Industry Challenges’.
The South African Poultry Industry has had a tough year, with many enterprises having to cease operation, but the Branch is committed to planning a good programme for 2017 with relevant speakers. We have started the Barnard-Gous scholarship to assist a student completing a poultry science based postgraduate degree with the aim to attract top students into our industry.
Best wishes for 2017 from the South African branch.
Nicola Tyler, Branch Secretary
As the year draws to a close it is an opportunity to reflect on another successful year for our Branch. Membership of the Branch remains steady at between 240 and 250 members. The WPSA UK Annual meeting was again held at the University of Chester, where about 80 delegates attended and listened to a varied programme of over 25 papers, many offered by young, enthusiastic researchers. Plans are already well advanced for 2017 with a return to Chester, possibly for the last time. Calls for abstracts have now closed and we look forward to an interesting and entertaining meeting in April 2017.
Those of you that attended WPC in Beijing will know that one of our long-term members (and past Branch President) Dr. Paul Hocking was inducted into the International Poultry Hall of Fame. Hot on the heels of this, WPSA UK is pleased to congratulate another of our members, Dr. Steven Pace, who last month was honoured with the accolade of Young Poultry Person of the Year, awarded during the banquet at the Egg and Poultry Industry Conference at Celtic Manor in November.
Our annual spring meeting will be held for a final time in Chester. The dates are the 26-27 April 2017.
The joint session with BSAS will explore views of animal science activities from the outside looking inwards: Dr. Nick Rousseau, Managing Director of the Woven Network will discuss public perception over the use of insects as feed and food, and Professor David Hughes, Emeritus Professor of Food Marketing at Imperial College London on engaging the end consumer. The WPSA Industry session will feature an introduction to current technologies in gene editing from Dr. Mike McGrew, Research Group Leader at the Roslin Institute, progressing to recent advances in gene editing for poultry and a bit of blue sky thinking and discussion about how it could potentially be used in the industry. Our second speaker will cover the topical issue of alternative protein sources – sharing a commercial viewpoint encompassing product quality, availability, supply chain volatility and a host of other factors influencing the decision over whether or not to invest in these raw materials.
The 2017 Gordon Memorial Lecture will focus on laying hens, with a talk from Professor Rudi Preisinger, of Lohmann Tierzucht GmbH, covering the interface between industry and research. The Gordon Memorial Lecture is a tribute both to the monumental work of Robert Fraser Gordon during his life, and also to the extraordinary achievements of poultry scientists who have followed him. The WPSA UK branch is proud to host this annual event, and our website gives more details on the Gordon Memorial Trust and the annual Award recipients.
As in 2016, there will be ten meeting scholarships available to registered students to facilitate their attendance at the meeting. Each WPSA UK Branch Spring Meeting Scholarship will be worth £150 and is sponsored by the branch. The scholarship is intended for payment or partial payment of registration fees and accommodation and will be awarded on a competition basis at the discretion of the branch Council. Although all students are encouraged to apply, preference may be given to UK undergraduate students. Applications will close on 31 January 2017. More details are available on the branch website.
Poultry Feathers & Skin – the past present and future of poultry integument
WPSA UK is pleased to announce the 32nd Poultry Science Symposium that is scheduled to be held in the historic and scenic city of Cambridge on 3-5 July 2017. The theme of the symposium is ‘Poultry feathers and skin – the past, present and future of poultry integument’. The programme committee is working to ensure that this informative symposium is of wide appeal to all in the poultry industry.
Abstract submission for the symposium is now open with the deadline for submission closing on 28 February 2017. We encourage all interested members to consider submitting an abstract.
There is a link for abstract submission on the symposium website where readers can also preview the invited topics and speakers.
Sponsorship opportunities are now available for the Symposium and all sponsorship goes directly to supporting the costs of the meeting. Lots of exciting possibilities exist from sponsoring coffee breaks to individual sessions.
Steve Lister, UK Branch Secretary
The USA Branch would like to announce the beginning of new four year terms for our new USA Branch Board members. The new Board members include Dr. Petek Settar (Hy-Line International), Dr. Tony Pescatore (University of Kentucky) and Dr. Sami Dridi (University of Arkansas). Drs. Settar and Pescatore will also serve on the Poultry Science Association Foundation Board. We express our sincere appreciation to outgoing Board members Dr. Curtis Novak, Dr. Ernie Pierson and Dr. Bob Buresh. Dr. Buresh will continue to serve as the USA Branch Secretary and is now a member of the WPSA Board.
Bob Buresh, Branch Secretary