|Volume 52, September 2020||Newsletter Editor: Dr G.B. Havenstein, ghavenst [AT] ncsu [DOT] edu|
8-12 August 2021, Paris, France
Registration for WPC2021
Registration for WPC2021 is open. Click here for details.
World’s Poultry Congress 2020 Paris, France, now in 2021
The new dates for the XXVI World’s Poultry Congress are 8-12 August 2021. More information on: wpcparis2021.com.
With regard to the scheduling of other WPSA symposia and conferences in the coming years, please avoid any overlapping with WPC2021. Please provide the new dates and other information for WPSA symposia and conferences to the WPSA office so it can be placed in the calendar on the website.
The Mediterranean Poultry Summit in Cordoba Spain, is planned for 6-8 October 2021. WPSA Working Group symposia scheduled for 2021 will be postponed to 2022. The next European Poultry Conference in Valencia, Spain, 2022 will be postponed to 2023.
Asia Pacific Federation
The next World Waterfowl Conference will be held in Indonesia in 2021, the next APPC in November 2022 in China.
WPSA presence at exhibitions and conferences
Just before the lockdown of COVID-19, several Board members attended the IPPE in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Our booth was located in a very strategic place, so we were able to meet with many members and visitors.
Since, all exhibitions, most symposia and congresses planned for 2020 have been postponed or cancelled. As soon as the future situation allows, we will again begin attending exhibitions, symposia and conferences, in order to display promotional materials for WPSA, the World’s Poultry Science Journal, WPC 2021 in Paris, France, and for many other poultry related symposia and conferences. In the meantime in order to improve our communication with branches and members, the frequency of our newsletter has been increased to at least 6 times per year, and other news can also be seen on WPSA’s Facebook page.
World’s Poultry Science Journal
Starting in 2020, the World’s Poultry Science Journal is hosted and produced by Taylor and Francis Publishers. The transition from the previous publisher was well underway when the COVID-19 pandemic occurred. The pandemic has caused unprecedented disruption to our global distribution network. The good news is that the print and distribution of the journal has been resumed from 11th May. The March issue has been mailed, the June issue is underway and the necessary work for the September issue has been finalized. Of course, there still may be some delays because some countries are still operating with reduced or closed postal services, and international freight carriage is subject to delays and changes in routing at short notice.
The Editorial board of the Journal invites all members to submit reviews for the coming issues.
Cooperation with the organization on World Veterinary Education in Production Animal Health (WVEPAH):
The WVEPAH, a non-profit organization that organizes 3-4 week training courses on poultry in several countries. More details are on www.wvepah.org. All activities will also be announced on our website and in the WPS Journal.
Dr Roel Mulder, General Secretary
If you are reading this, I hope I can assume that you are in good health and continuing to protect yourself and family against COVID-19. Since the last Newsletter, our lives have continued in an atypical fashion. Your WPSA Executive Committee and Board members have been in frequent contact by phone, e-mail, and through the now-famous Zoom Meetings!
In addition to working with my colleagues on how to deal with and re-schedule all the WPSA events, postponed or cancelled during 2020, I have been carrying on with the regular work of the WPSA finances. I am very pleased to report that 90% of the companies who generously support the WPS Journal have paid their 2020 invoices for advertising and sponsorship. In addition, our hard-working Branch Secretaries have done a good job in dues collection and wiring the invoiced portion of international dues payment to me. I have been working with the Review of the Books Committee. They are in the middle of their task of going over the financial records of 2019. They will be submitting their report to Drs. Mulder and Yang.
With the postponement of the World’s Poultry Congress until 2021, the 2020 WPSA Board Meeting that was scheduled for Paris will be conducted by - you guessed it - Zoom. I certainly will miss interacting in person with my colleagues, as well as greeting all of you in the City of Light.
As I write this, California is in the midst of a terrible heat wave and there are multiple wildfires raging throughout the state. I send wishes to you for more pleasant weather and freedom from natural disasters in your home areas.
Dr Francine Bradley, Treasurer
Palais de Congrès, August 8-12, 2021, Paris, France
ONE YEAR TO GO UNTIL WE FINALLY MEET IN PARIS
The organising committee was expecting to welcome WPSA members from all around the world in Paris during August 2020, for the 26th WPC. The Covid-19 crisis resulted in its postponement. We are now counting on everybody to join us for a successful WPC2021 in Paris, on 8 to 12 August 2021. https://wpcparis2021.com/
All authors who submitted abstracts in 2019 have now received their reviews and comments since April 2020. They are now permitted to modify their accepted abstracts or amend them with new results. Amendments must be completed before 31 August 2020.
The submission site will reopen for new abstracts from 1 September to 31 December 2020. Do not miss this chance to present your latest work.
Registrations previously made for cancelled WPC2020 are valid for WPC2021. The same regular fee will be used for any new registrations made through 31 December 2020.
Holding the World Poultry Congress in 2021 gives the WPSA Organization the opportunity to celebrate its 100th anniversary, since the first WPC was held during 1921.
Christophe Bostvironnois, President French Branch
Michael Duclos, Secretary, French Branch
Michèle Tixier Boichard, WPC2020, Programme Coordinator
In her role as one of the Vice Presidents of the WPSA, Julie Roberts from the Australian Branch has compiled a list of Poultry Educational Resources which are available free of charge via the internet. Some of the web sites listed also have resources for sale. However, the focus of this list is resources which are free and therefore available to all members.
The list is posted on the WPSA website, and will always be a ‘work in progress’ as some resources become available and added, or others, if they are out of date or no longer available, will be removed from the internet list.
If members are aware of other resources that are available that could be added to the list, please contact Mrs Dorien Velner at the main office by email: wpsa [AT] xs4all [DOT] nl with the title of the resource, how to access it and a short description.
All entries will be checked on a regular basis to make sure that they continue to be available, however if you find any irregularities, please contact us at wpsa [AT] xs4all [DOT] nl.
The next European Poultry Conference will be held in Valencia, Spain in 2022.
The European Federation has numerous conferences planned between now and on into 2022. A list of most of our upcoming conferences may be found on the WPSA Calendar at www.wpsa.com.
News from several European Federation Working Groups are provided below.
WPSA European Working Group News
In order to avoid overlapping with the WPC that has been changed to August 8 - 12, 2021, the European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition (ESPN) has been moved from 2021 to take place at the same planned venue, Palacongressi in Rimini, from 5 to 8 September, 2022. Our Branch would like to thank VET International and Palacongressi of Rimini for their cooperation and understanding during this time. Despite this difficult situation, we also much appreciate sponsors and partners who are confirming their support for our event. Of course, we will work hard during the coming months to ensure the postponed edition of the 23rd ESPN is a success. The city of Rimini is an ideal place for the European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition and the modern as well as eco-friendly Venue is the perfect stage for the event. Many attendees including both poultry research scientists and practitioners, leading speakers from across the world joining together to explore the past, share the present and will help forge the future of poultry meat science. Additional details are available at the Symposia website: https://www.espn2022.eu/
Breeding and Genetics
The 12th symposium on Breeding and Genetics is being planned. It will take place in Hannover, 8-10 November 2022, and will be hosted by the German Branch. We would be pleased if you save this date and plan your participation. Further information will follow in due course.
Steffen Weigend, Chairman of the European Federations Working Group 3
Quality of Eggs and Egg Products
Due to the postponement of the World’s Poultry Congress caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, the WG4 meeting has been re-scheduled to take place during WPC2021 in August 2021, in Paris. Members who want to suggest topics to be discussed are more than welcome and can send their suggestions to the Chairpersons (cristina [DOT] alamprese [AT] unimi [DOT] it; joel [DOT] gautron [AT] inrae [DOT] fr).
Poultry Meat Quality
As for all European Symposia, the next 'XXV European Symposium on the Quality of Poultry Meat' will be conjointly held with the 'XIX European Symposium on the Quality of Eggs and Egg Products' have been postponed to June 8 to 10, 2022 thanks to our cooperation with the Polish Branch. The venue will be in Kraków, Poland, and the website is already available. The next WG5 member meeting will be held during World's Poultry Congress 2021 in Paris, see the Congress Programme for the meeting time and location.
Please visit http://www.eggmeat2022.com/ to keep yourself updated. Special reduced registration fees will be available for WPSA members and students. We will look forward to seeing many of you there. Prominent invited speakers from American and European Institutions will address emerging issues on poultry meat and egg production.
Most WG5 members will also be participating in the 2021 World's Poultry Congress in Paris, France on August 8-12, and the scientific programme of the two parallel sessions dealing with 'Meat Quality' will be defined under the supervision of the WG5 group in connection with the Congress Scientific Committee of which the WG5 chairperson is a part.
Massimiliano Petracci, Secretary Italian Branch of WPSA
Incubation and Fertility Research Group (IFRG)
Due to the spread of the Covid-19 virus, which has created lots of uncertainty for traveling, WG6 (IFRG) has postponed its 2020 meeting and has rescheduled it for October 14-15, 2021 at the Holiday Inn in Leiden, The Netherlands. For more information see the website.
Ampai Nangsuay, Secretary WG6
WPSA Asian-Pacific Working Group News
Small Scale Family Poultry Farming
As well as the global impact on human health, Covid-19 unfortunately has serious secondary effects on the poorest communities in less well-developed economies. Since 1998, global poverty has been trending downwards but forecasts from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund suggest that Covid-19 will push a further 49 million people into extreme poverty in 2020. This would increase the total number of people in poverty who often must survive on less than US $1.90 per day to around 665 million. Food supply and demand, production and distribution of food, all on top of restrictions due to the virus, will be heavily impacted.
We know that family poultry farming can contribute to a reduction of poverty and a general improvement in the social condition of the poor. Extra effort to promote this is now needed more than ever. Planned for the World Poultry Congress in Paris this year was a WG session on Small Scale Family Poultry Farming. This WG session will be carried over to the postponed dates of 8 - 12 August WPC2021 in Paris, France.
Alan M. Gibbins, Chairman A/P WG1
The 6th World Waterfowl Conference was held in Taipei, Taiwan, during October 2017, and a board meeting was organized during that conference in order to appoint a new Chairperson for the Waterfowl WG, and to choose the host country for the next Waterfowl conference. By vote of the WG members, I was elected to serve as the new Chairman, and Indonesia was asked to serve as the host country for the 7th WWC. I would like to express my appreciation to the Taiwan Organizing Committee and the Taiwan branch for hosting an excellent and well-organized event in 2017.
Originally, the 7th WWC was scheduled to be held during September 2021 in Tangerang near Jakarta, but because the 26th WPC in Paris has been postponed to August 2021 we decided to delay the 7th WWC to 2022. The dates are not yet determined. We thought that many participants at the 2021WPC in Paris would also have been interested in participating in the 7th WWC, but it would have been difficult for people to attend both conferences in one year, if the original date had been maintained.
The 7th WWC will consist of three different programmes : i) scientific programme, ii) business forum, and iii) a culinary programme. We expect to stimulate interactions between scientists and corporations, both domestic and international, during the conference. We sincerely hope that the 7th WWC will be as attractive and as enjoyable as the 2017 conference in Taipei, and I look forward to welcoming many of you to the event in 2022.
Hardi Prasetyo, WPSA Indonesia, Chairman
The Ratite Working Group held a general meeting on the 18th of March 2020 at 10:00 on the Oudtshoorn Research Farm, Oudtshoorn, South Africa. The next meeting has been re-scheduled, and will take place during the 2021 World Poultry Congress that will be held in Paris, France on 8-12 August. Please let us know if you are planning to attend the meeting and Congress, as well as any topics that you would like to have considered, by sending an email to anele [AT] elsenburg [DOT] com
Anel Engelbrecht, Chair
Due to the current health situation and the uncertainty generated by the covid-19, the organizing Committees of the 7th Mediterranean Poultry Summit have decided to postpone again the event until October 6-8, 2021.
This difficult and sad decision is taken after a first postponement. At that time, we thought that the 6-month period contemplated for carrying out the MPS was enough time for the health situation to be controlled throughout the world. However, the world situation and the restrictions on capacity indoors suggest that a new postponement is the best option.
I hope the situation changes in one year and we can meet again face to face.
Thank you for your patience and support.
Carlos Garcés Narro
Details for the conference are shown on the website summit’s website: www.mpn-wpsa.org.
From 2020 the World’s Poultry Science Journal will be published by Taylor & Francis. If you have requested an online subscription as part of your membership, you have received an email from Taylor & Francis with instructions how to access WPSJ online from the new website www.tandfonline.com/TWPS. Please ensure that you add '@tandfonline.com' to your safe senders list to ensure these types of emails are not sent to your spam folder or blocked by your service provider. Should you have any questions about your online access please contact support [AT] tandfonline [DOT] com”.
Articles in upcoming Journal(s)
- Ashley England - The influence of light of different wavelengths on laying hen production and egg quality
- Fazul Nabi - Nutraceutical role of selenium nanoparticles in poultry nutrition: A review
- Leonie Jacobs - Stakeholder perceptions on broiler chicken welfare during first-day processing and the pre-slaughter phase: a case-study in Belgium
- Mehmet Bozkurt - The Effect of Feed Structure on Gastrointestinal Tract Traits and Performance in Laying Hens: An Overview of 70 Years’ Experience
- Àndrew Wales - Review of hatchery transmission of bacteria with focus on Salmonella, chick pathogens and antimicrobial resistance
- Sonja Liu - Reduced-crude protein diets in chicken-meat production: justification for an imperative
- Ana Marquiza Quilicot - Plant-derived products for the control of poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer, 1778) – a review
- Yumin Bao - Amino acid nutrition and chicken gut health
- Afaf Alnaser - Poultry Industry in the Gulf Cooperation Council with Emphasis on Kuwait
- Annemarie Mens - Nutritional approaches to reduce or prevent feather pecking in laying hens: any potential to intervene during rearing?
- Ebru Onbasilar - Noninfectious Skeletal Disorders in Broilers
- Kennady Vijavalakshmy - Role of turmeric supplementation on stress management and production strategies in poultry nutrition
- Rao Abbas - Role of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants against Ascaridia galli
- Anand Prakash - Molecular basis of residual feed intake in broilers: A review
The influence of light of different wavelengths on laying hen production and egg quality
ASHLEY ENGLAND and ISABELLE RUHNKE
Worldwide, commercial laying hens are frequently being used for only one production cycle mainly due to a decline in egg quality and/or egg quantity at 70-80 weeks of age. Extending the production cycle of these hens by improving or maintaining their egg quality and laying persistency could lead to both economic and environmental benefits as well as a more sustainable egg industry. Laying performance of the modern-day laying hen is highly dependent upon the light source used during housing and artificial lighting programs have been used for years to control egg production. Birds are able to perceive coloured light (400-700 nm) as well as the ultraviolet part of the spectrum (100-400 nm) due to the presence of an extra retinal cone in the eye. Studies have shown that red light, due to its longer wavelength of 660 nm, is able to stimulate the hypothalamus and elicit a photosexual response in all animals including birds. This can result in increased egg production in comparison to green, blue or white light exposure, although responses may be variable depending on bird strain and the intensity of the light used. Ultraviolet light has a shorter wavelength (100-400 nm) than visible light (400-700 nm) and so its effects on egg production are likely to be weak to non-existent. The benefits of UV light are mediated through its ability to activate cholecalciferol from 7-dehydroxycholesterol in the skin resulting in improvements in egg shell quality. These improvements in shell quality are most likely to occur in birds that are exposed to (natural) day light, as UV light can compensate to some extent the lack of Vitamin D in poultry diets. This review highlights the variable effects of light of different wavelengths and intensity on laying hen production, egg quality and its potential to extend the end of lay in commercial hens.
Nutraceutical role of selenium nanoparticles in poultry nutrition
F. NABI, M.A. ARAIN, F. HASSAN, M. UMAR, N. RAJPUT, M. ALAGAWANY, S.F. SYED, J. SOOMRO, F. SOOMRO and J. LIU
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element with diverse physiological functions related to cellular homeostasis, body metabolism and antioxidant defence. Selenium is an integral constituent of at least 25 selenoproteins in the body that regulate cellular redox and antioxidant defence enzymes systems control free radicles of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dietary Se plays key role in immunity, growth and fertility in chickens, which require optimum levels in their diets to maintain high reproductive and productive performance of birds. In the last decade, dietary supplementation with selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) has enhanced the growth performance, feed conversion ratio (FCR), reproductive performance, egg production, immune response and antioxidant status, as well as improved the quality of meat and eggs and promoted microflora. Selenium has been shown to increase relative weights of immune related organs (burse and thymus) to enhance immunity. Feeding Se-NPs can improve antioxidant status and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in both broilers and layers. Use of Se-NPs at 0.9 mg/kg diet in broilers improved the intestinal health via increasing the population of beneficial bacteria and producing short chain fatty acids. This review focuses on the significance of selenium nanoparticles in poultry industry and provides insights about its comparative advantages over conventional sources of Se in poultry diets.
Stakeholder perceptions on broiler chicken welfare during day of hatch processing and the pre-slaughter phase: a case-study in Belgium
EVELIEN LAMBRECHT, LEONIE JACOBS, EVELYNE DELEZIE, HANS DE STEUR, XAVIER GELLYNCK and FRANK TUYTTENS
Day of hatch and pre-slaughter processing are stressful events (involving selection, handling and transport) for broiler chickens, putting pressure on welfare, which has economic consequences. This case-study documented common industry practices and evaluated poultry industry stakeholder perceptions related to broiler welfare during day-of-hatch processing and the pre-slaughter phase. Twenty-three individual in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of key stakeholders in the Flemish poultry sector: hatchery personnel (5), farmers (6), poultry catchers (2), transporters (3), and slaughterhouse personnel (7). The findings showed various factors influencing broiler welfare during day of hatch processing and the pre-slaughter phase, with some discrepancies between stakeholder views and the scientific evidence. While stakeholders perceived the day of hatch processing procedures of chicks to be relatively under control, with no major issues, literature points out several issues, including first-week mortality and time without feed and water as major welfare problems. For broilers at slaughter age, the industry stakeholders’ views aligned well with scientific evidence on major welfare issues, such as injuries, thermal stress, mortality during fasting, catching, loading, transportation and lairage. This study provides novel insights in stakeholder perceptions, and potential avenues for future research and actions to reduce animal welfare problems in the poultry sector.
The effect of feed structure on gastrointestinal tract traits and performance in laying hens: An overview of 70 Years’ Experience
M. BOZKURT, I. GIANNENAS, M.ÇABUK and A.E.TÜZÜN
A large amount of existing evidence shows that the micro- and macrostructure of feed has a strong influence on the function, development and health of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), which, in turn, affects the performance of poultry birds. Notably, the majority of data corresponding to feed structure-induced changes in the productivity of birds has been generated from studies using broiler chickens. However, feed particle size and feed form remain an obscure and undervalued area of study in the feeding of layer chickens, with sparse evidence reported between the 1940s and 2000s. Moreover, feed in the form of crumbles and pellets, which has made a major contribution to broiler production efficiency, has not been the feed of choice for layers, where mash diets have been common practice worldwide for many years. Nonetheless, the role of feed structure in the feeding of layer chickens has recently begun to attract more interest. However, results are divergent and often not as satisfactory as expected, except in the case of gizzard weight, which typically decreases by 8% and 16% on average with finely ground and pelleted feed, respectively. The results for most performance parameters, however, are typically insignificant. In some cases where the effect of the feed form was significant, pelleting increased feed consumption by 6%, whereas a clear 9% reduction was observed in another example. The incongruities in the results are likely due to confounding factors, such as management conditions and ingredient composition of the diets. Nevertheless, the effect of feed form on the investigated parameters was more evident than the effect of feed particle size. The following review provides an overview of data from seven decades regarding the implications of feed structure on the physiology, histology, metabolism and development of the gut and the performance of egg-laying chickens.
Review of hatchery transmission of bacteria with focus on Salmonella, chick pathogens and antimicrobial resistance
ANDREW WALES and ROBERT DAVIES
Commercial poultry hatcheries potentially provide a sanitary barrier between breeder flocks and their progeny. This is important, particularly within the pyramid breeding structures in integrated poultry production systems. However, the operation of hatcheries and their focal position connected with multiple flocks, both on the input and output sides, means that they are vulnerable to being reservoirs of infectious agents. Of particular concern for hatcheries is the pseudo-vertical transmission of bacteria that are initially deposited at the surface of forming or freshly-laid eggs. These bacteria (of which Salmonella enterica is a prime example) can subsequently be present in the chick, as well as spreading within the hatchery environment to colonise other hatching birds. Furthermore, if such infectious organisms become persistent in parts of the hatchery environment, this allows their repeated transfer to hatching individuals or even (via personnel and fomites) to transfer back into breeding flocks supplying the hatchery. The use of antimicrobial drugs in hatcheries adds the further hazard of seeding progeny with antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) organisms. The mechanisms of hatchery, egg and subsequent chick contamination have been understood, and strategies to counteract the spread and persistence of infectious agents are well-established. However, many studies examining bacterial pathogens and AMR organisms in poultry production implicate hatcheries, either as a link in a chain or as a source of such agents. This review outlines the challenges posed by hatchery operation to control of bacterial transmission, it examines the contemporary and historical evidence for such phenomena, and it briefly discusses strategies to counteract the issue.
Justifying reduced-crude protein diets in chicken-meat production
S. GREENHALGH, P.V. CHRYSTAL, P.H. SELLE and S. Y. LIU
The justification for the chicken-meat industry to develop reduced-crude protein (CP) diets is compelling. Environment pollution by nitrogen and ammonia emissions can be improved, as a dietary reduction of 25 g/kg CP has been shown to generate a 25.8% reduction in N excretion. Bird welfare can be enhanced, as lower CP excretion improves litter quality and lessens incidence of foot-pad dermatitis and related conditions. Flock health can be improved by reductions in the flow of undigested protein into the hindgut which, in unchecked, fuels the proliferation of potential pathogens at a time when in-feed inclusions of antibiotics are in decline. Moreover, reduced-CP diets have the potential to lessen feed ingredient costs as prices of ‘synthetic’ amino acids are likely to decrease due to economies of scale in production. The successful development and adoption of reduced-crude protein (CP) diets may reduce the chicken-meat industry’s demand for sources of ‘intact’ protein, e.g. where soybean meal is dominant and in demand from many quarters. Using synthetic methionine, lysine and threonine in maize-soy diets been shown to lead to a substantial reduction in dietary CP from 356 to 200 g/kg, along with reductions in soybean meal from 709 to 293 g/kg feed. Reductions of 40% of soyabean use in feed have been postulated.
Plant-derived products for the control of poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer, 1778) – a review
ANA MARQUIZA M. QUILICOT, ŽELJKO GOTTSTEIN, ESTELLA PRUKNER-RADOVČIĆ and DANIJELA HORVATEK TOMIĆ
The impact of Dermanyssus gallinae infestation on poultry health and production has driven the poultry industry to look for efficient control measures to be incorporated in integrated pest management (IPM). Attempts have been employed to control, if not, eliminate the infestation which includes application of chemicals, implementation of biological and/or physical measures, vaccination, or use of plant-derived products; or a combination of two or more of these measures. Chemical control, though efficient, has limitations such as the development of resistance in mite populations and safety issues concerning environmental residues and non-target organism toxicity. These limitations resulted in banning most of the previously applied synthetic acaricides; thus, attention has been directed to the potential of plant-derived products (PDPs). Among the PDPs reviewed, essential oils of bay, lime dis 5F, pimento berry, spearmint, cade, clove bud, penny royal, coriander, thyme, mustard, horseradish, sweet basil, peppermint and summer savoury results in up to 100% mortality by direct contact or fumigation. Whereas, garlic extract and essential oils of thyme, manuka, Eucalyptus citriodora and lavender produce mortality rates from 66-95.35% when applied directly or through spray. Three essential oils (penny royal, cinnamon bark and garlic) has ovicidal effect by direct contact. Other PDPs have the potential to reduce mite population and reproduction rates. This paper reviews PDPs on their efficacy, mode of action and effect on target organisms, advantages, and limitations. Recognizing the potentials and limitations of the different PDPs is important in formulating an effective product (combination of two or more PDPs) for the control of D. gallinae.
Amino acids nutrition and chicken gut health
There is considerable interest in the development of reduced protein diets with supplemental amino acids (AA) for broiler chickens due to economic, environmental, health and bird welfare advantages. Lowering levels of protein, or using local sources, which may be more poorly digested or have an unbalanced AA profile, has implications for both animal performance and health. However, reduced protein diets may result in amino acid redistribution away from growth and production processes, toward intestinal cells involved in immune and inflammatory responses. Certain gut diseases are related to higher protein diets, and low protein formulations can reduce the risk of such problems. However, in low protein diets, a reduced or unbalanced supply of AA in the diet can be deleterious to the immune system. Therefore, an ideal dietary AA profile is crucial for broiler chicken gut health, especially in AGP free situations. All AA are in ratio to dietary Lys, and when Lys concentration is increased, both essential and non-essential AA concentrations need to be increased accordingly. Currently when dietary standardised ileal digestibility (SID) for Lys is 1.3%, the SID of total sulphur-containing AA (TSSA) may need to increase to 0.975%, Arg to 1.43%, Thr to 0.884%, Val to 1.04%, Ile to 0.884% and Phe to 0.845%. In wheat-soy based diets, reduced protein diets may lead to deficiencies in His and Ala, potentially affecting chicken gut health. Possibly the SID of His needs to increase to 0.53%. Some non-essential AA profiles need to increase, such as SID of Gly to 0.884%, Glu to 3.54% and Ala to 0.845%. Compared with DL-Methionine and DL-HMTBA, L-Met is the natural form of Met and its relative biological value (RBV) has remained controversial due to unsuitable statistical models and other limiting AA influence. Increasing AA levels in reduced protein diets has been shown to maintain growth and ensure less incidence of gut disorders.
Poultry industry in the Gulf Cooperation Council with emphasis on Kuwait
A. AL-NASSER, H. AL-KHALAIFAH, F. KHALIL and H. AL-MANSOUR
In Kuwait, per capita consumption of poultry meat was 64.4 kg/cap/yr from 2004-2016. This indicates the high demand for poultry meat in Kuwait, which cannot be met by local production alone. The Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) has conducted poultry research projects into high quality and added-value poultry products, which could be utilised to enhance competitiveness in Kuwait production systems. Their scientific achievements include developing broiler and layer feed rations, improving FCR of broilers from 2.0 to 1.4, production of high-quality broilers, strict biosecurity measures on farm and enhanced diversity of poultry products, such as meat and eggs from Arabi chickens, quails, and ducks. However, more work is needed in areas of poultry feed and added value product technology. In addition, technology transfer of KISR Intellectual property (IP) and knowledge to the poultry industry is necessary. The goal of this paper was to show the major achievements of KISR poultry research; identify gaps and propose solutions to improve production and enhance local industry competitiveness, in addition to conservation of the endangered avian species; Falcons and Houbara.
Nutritional approaches to reduce or prevent feather pecking in laying hens: is there any potential to intervene during rearing?
A.J.W. MENS, M.M. VAN KRIMPEN and R.P. KWAKKEL
Feather pecking (FP) by laying hens is a significant welfare issue in the poultry industry. Pecking at and pulling out feathers of conspecifics can seriously reduce the well-being of birds and cause economic losses for the farmer. Records of the prevalence of FP in laying hen flocks from the last 20 years show a prevalence of between 24-94%. Several research groups world-wide have hypothesised about the causes of feather pecking. From a nutritional point of view, re-directed behaviour and feather eating seem to be the most plausible causes. The gut microbiome seems to be involved in FP due to its influence on hormonal pathways and as it is influenced by the diet, which might include feathers ingested by the hens. Bird experiences during the rearing period are related to FP in later life by possible effects on the physiological development of the pullets. Most likely, pullets experience a sensitive period within the first few weeks post-hatch during which FP can develop due to various factors such as hormonal influences, nutrition and (the lack of) environmental enrichment. Nutrition could influence FP in two ways. Deficiencies or imbalances in certain nutrients, such as amino acids may have a direct effect on physiological mechanisms that trigger FP. Furthermore, ingredients such as roughages, fibres and non-nutritive ingredients may have an effect on exploratory and foraging or feeding behaviour. Literature (mainly in adult layers) shows that nutritional interventions increased eating time by 23-45% and/or the mean retention time of feed in the gut by 2.9-6.0 min/g fibre, and reduced or delayed FP behaviour. Using such nutritional strategies (i.e. provision of specific AA profiles and/or high fibrous ingredients) during the sensitive period during rearing could prevent ultimately the development of FP, by altering the pullets’ (gut) physiology and/or her time budget allocation. Research with a focus on critical periods during rearing should be initiated.
Non-infectious skeletal disorders in broilers
H. ÇAPAR AKYÜZ and E.E. ONBAŞILAR
The incidence of non-infectious skeletal disorders has been reported to increase over the past decade. Both genetic selection and rearing conditions cause skeletal disorders in the broilers. The rapid increase in broiler body weight, along with weakened, immature tissues, causes deformations by putting extra load on the skeletal system. Non-infectious skeletal disorders found in commercial broilers include articular gout, degenerative joint disease, dyschondroplasia, rickets, rotational-angular deformities, spondylopathies and ruptured gastrocnemius tendon. In broilers, bilateral abnormalities affect around 17% of the population, but the most common disorders are unilateral abnormalities in terms of leg disorders. Articular gout occurs, causing up to 40% mortality, and femoral degeneration incidence ranged between 81.67 and 85.00% in commercial broilers. The heritabilities were found for tibial dyschondroplasia ranged from 0.13 to 0.18 in different broiler breeds. Non-infectious skeletal disorders have led to significant welfare problems, including pain and high mortality rate in broilers and losses to the producer, influencing the production and quality. The most crucial point here is to optimise the welfare conditions of the poultry administration.
Role of turmeric supplementation on production, physical and biochemical parameters in laying hens
DEVVRAT KOSTI, D.S. DAHIYA, RAJESH DALAL, B.S. TEWATIA and KENNADY VIJAYALAKSHMY
In order to meet the high demand for eggs, poultry producers are using certain feed strategies which can increase production, but may indirectly cause metabolic and other stress in the birds. To overcome these issues, natural plant extracts and ingredients, such as turmeric, can be added to the diet. The inclusion of turmeric, which has various beneficial properties, at levels of 0.75% and 1% in the diets can improve feed intake and significantly reduce cholesterol in broilers. Cholesterol in eggs has been shown to decrease by 16, 24 and 25% (P<0.05) when layers were fed 1, 2 and 4% turmeric in feed, respectively. Birds fed a high carbohydrate ration and supplemented with turmeric powder for 30 days prior to sexual maturity had 20% more egg production as compared to a control group. Lactobacillus spp. counts were significantly higher (P<0.01) in chickens fed 1% turmeric supplemented feed compared to unsupplemented birds. Hence, this review includes the effect of feeding turmeric on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, nutrient digestibility, biochemical parameters, egg production, egg qualities, intestinal morphology, gut bacteria and the genetic expression of toll-like receptors.
Role of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants against Ascaridia galli
MUHAMMAD ARFAN ZAMAN, RAO ZAHID ABBAS, WARDA QAMAR, MUHAMMAD FIAZ QAMAR, UZMA MEHREEN, ZOHAIB SHAHID and MUHAMMAD KAMRAN
In recent years, the roundworm Ascaridia galli has been found to be the most common poultry parasite, with 64.8% prevalence in flocks globally. It causes a 60% to 84% decrease in egg and meat production. Profitability is reduced without proper control of A. galli, and wide range of chemically synthetic anthelmintics are commonly used. Emergence of drug resistance in nematodes has made scientists search for effective replacements. Among the alternatives to anthelmintics, natural products can be used which are more environment, consumer and host friendly, due to lower or no toxic effects. Certain plants exhibit anthelmintic effects through secondary metabolites (SMB’s), such as terpenes (glycosides and saponins), phenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins) and nitrogen containing compounds (alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides and non-protein amino acids). Generally, SMB’s exhibit control of nematodes by causing starvation, damaging the external membrane, impairing fertility and growth rate and damaging musculature. In this review paper, the studies related to the screening of plants and their SMB’s activities (both in vivo and in vitro) are discussed. Some plants have efficacy more than 75% and comprehensive information about their taxonomy and dosage has been documented. Plants that have been found with intense efficacy against A. galli include Acanthus ilicifolius (100%), Cleome viscosa (100%), Osmium sanctum (100%), Murraya koenigii (100%), Sesbania grandiflora (90%), Citrus limon (87.5%), Polygonum hydropiper (83.3%), Swietenia macrophylla (76.6%) and Momordica charantia (75%). Important secondary metabolites include terpenoids (51.72%) followed by phenolic compounds (27.58%) and nitrogen-containing compounds (20.68%). Such plant-derived alternatives are almost 50% more cost effective than synthetic drugs.
Molecular basis of determining residual feed intake in broilers
A. PRAKASH, V.K. SAXENA, RAVI KUMAR GANDHAM, SIMMI TOMAR and M.K. SINGH
Understanding the expression of genes influencing low and high residual feed intake (RFI) is required to elucidate the basic molecular mechanism influencing feed efficiency. Molecular mechanisms affecting RFI are controlled by many factors, such as neural signals, hormones, mitochondrial efficiency, metabolic pathways, and nitrogen recycling. This review covers different aspects of molecular mechanisms affecting feed intake, growth and, oxidative stress affecting feed efficiency in broilers. Low RFI chickens maintain feed efficiency by reducing feed intake independent of body weight gain, by upregulating CD36, PPARa, HMGCS2 and GCG, and downregulating PCSK2, CALB1, SAT1 and SGK1. Hormones, like cholecystokinin and glucagon, act as an anorexigenic factor, whereas leptin induces feed intake. Various molecular pathways and metabolic signals, such as the central melanocortin system, AMPK pathway, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and PI3K/Akt pathway control feed intake by determining the energy status of the body. A major cause of low feed efficiency in broilers is due to the reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidation of protein. Genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system such as DERL1, UFD1L, and UFM1 are down-regulated in highly feed efficient broilers. In addition, the expression patterns of the genes involved in mitochondrial energy production, such as avANT, COX III, avUCP, iNOS, PPAR2 and avPGC-1a, have been changed, and these can be a marker for selection against lower RFI in chickens.
‘Broiler breeders require full attention. Two sexes with completely different requirements is like managing two different species in one flock.’
Poultry meat is the most important animal protein source in the human diet. As a consequence, global production of broiler meat is rapidly growing to over 125 million tons in 2020. A relatively small number of broiler breeders has a major impact on the whole poultry meat chain. The continuing increase in the genetic potential of broilers makes the production of first class chicks increasingly challenging. State of the art management is crucial for a successful flock. Differences in results up to 10 day-old chicks per hen housed are not rare, costing tens of thousands of euros.
Breeder Signals contains practical information about broiler breeders to ensure a maximum production of first grade hatching eggs. With practical tools and modern insights to optimise sexual behaviour, fertility, egg production, and hatchability, based on the look-think-act approach. Feathering provides you signals about the quality of your flock. Too nice? Then they are hardly mating. Too little? These hens will not mate since it will be painful. The book follows the day-old-chick arriving at the rearing house towards the laying period up to egg transport to the hatchery.
Breeder Signals is essential for all people working in the poultry meat chain as breeder farm managers, farm workers, advisors, veterinarians, students, etc.
Breeder Signals is part of the Poultry Signals series©.
The Poultry Research Foundation of the University of Sydney, in conjunction with the Australian Branch of WPSA, cordially invites you to the 32nd Australian Poultry Science Symposium (APSS) that will be held on February 9-10, 2021 at the University of Sydney, Camperdown Campus, Australia. The 32nd APSS 2021 will be available both in person and online. For details see: https://www.apss2021.com.au/
Online Paper Submissions opened on Wednesday 1st July, 2020 – submissions close Wednesday 30th September at 11.59 pm, Australian Eastern Standard Time.
The APSS is the premier avian science conference in Australia, attracting delegates from right across Australia and all around the world.
For 2021, we are excited to announce that, for the first time, our conference will be presented as a HYBRID EVENT, meaning that we will still have a physical event in Sydney, but will also stream the event LIVE ONLINE, so that delegates can attend from their workplaces or from home. In these unprecedented times, we felt that it was vital that our international attendees could still participate in our world-renowned event. So, by using one of the most cutting-edge conference platforms, we are opening up our event globally, and potentially to a larger audience than ever before.
We predict that there will be a significant decrease in physical attendees, so we have made the decision to move the physical event back to the University of Sydney Campus next year. In recent years, it has been held at the Sheraton Hotel in central Sydney. We plan, however, to take the event back to central Sydney again as soon as possible.
As always, APSS will continue to include an array of excellent invited speakers to be featured at the event. We will also provide our delegates plenty of time to network and communicate by offering a lively social programme, which will include both our physical and virtual attendees.
- Gut Health Layer
- Breeder Nutrition and Management Antimicrobial Stewardship
- Layer Hen Welfare
Preliminary Invited Speakers
- Robert Renema – Canada
- Bec Forder – South Australia
- Kenneth Anderson – USA
- David Marks – New Zealand
- Sam Abraham – Western Australia
- Maarten de Gussem – Belgium
For more information please contact
Email. benjamin [DOT] geist [AT] sydney [DOT] edu [DOT] au or jo-ann [DOT] geist [AT] sydney [DOT] edu [DOT] au
Phone: +61 2 9351 1656
Julie Roberts, President, Australia Branch
The spread of COVID-19 or corona virus is a rapidly developing situation. With considerable effects felt socially and economically across the globe, there is a growing awareness that we are all facing considerable challenges.
The Scientific Research Institute of Animal Husbandry in the Ministry of Agriculture of the Azerbaijan Republic, including the members of the Azerbaijan Branch of WPSA, has continued to support the poultry sector during the corona virus pandemic. Experts from our Institute have organized online training sessions for farmers on several different topics, including 'Feeding technology for breeding birds', 'Features of goose breeding on farms', Technology of broiler meat production', etc.
We plan to hold an international conference that will be named 'Tendencies of Poultry Development. Innovative Technologies Applied to Poultry'. Tentatively, that conference will be held on the 5th of October 2020. If the corona virus lockdown continues, however, the conference will be converted to a video conference.
Mahir Hajiyev, President, Azerbaijan branch
FACTA WPSA-Brazil Conference discussed the evolution of aviculture permeated by the concept of ‘One Health’
National and international speakers collaborated to deliver the rich content present throughout the event
The FACTA WPSA-Brazil 2020 Conference finished on the Thursday night of August 13th marked a historical moment for Brazilian aviculture, after being organized entirely online. For three days, national and international lecturers spoke to attendants from 16 countries, producing a confluence of highly technical content relevant for the sector.
The event’s 37th edition counted with simultaneous translation into English and Spanish and, although remotely, participants interacted through questions sent to moderators and presented to the speakers in sequence.
This edition’s chosen theme was ‘One Health’, which, according to Ricardo Santin, executive director of the Brazilian Association of Animal Protein (ABPA) and vice-president of the International Poultry Council (IPC), is an essential discussion for Brazilian aviculture. ‘New technologies, innovation and applied science are cornerstones of a strong sector and international competitiveness. In times of fighting against human diseases such as Covid, and animal ones such as Avian Influenza and the African Swine Fever, the meaning of discussing ‘One Health’ is more evident, so that we can achieve desirable and sustainable results in all respects’, he stated.
Santin was responsible for the Conference’s opening lecture, in which he highlighted the country’s attributes. ‘Throughout five decades of strong investment and entrepreneurship of the sector, with a management model integrating producers and agro-industries, Brazil’s aviculture has laid solid foundations that have consolidated into enviable strength. Strong investments in technology and product customization were supplements to the country’s technical competence in Veterinary Medicine and Zootechny, as it continues to be the single great global producer never to record Avian Influenza. Natural advantages such as the climate and other favourable aspects are complemented by the wide offer of grains’, he detailed.
For FACTA’s president, Irenilza de Alencar Nääs, the online Conference was a historical moment for Brazilian aviculture, one that required enormous efforts from the foundation’s board to overcome the various technological and ideological barriers of its members. ‘Not everyone was confident that it would work out, but we did not allow the pandemic or the difficulties to bring us down and we believe that in this ‘new normality’ it is still possible to make a high quality conference. This is shown by our participants exceeding 400 people from 16 different countries and the expansion of our collaboration network into Latin American aviculture’.
She added that the event’s success, with high and steady viewing rates through all three days, was due to a confluence of excellent ideas from all of FACTA’s team, assertive actions and speakers with great commitment and motivation to make it into the brilliant conference everyone was presented with.
Awards and tributes
In the first day of the event, there was held the presentation of the award winning works of the 2020 Lamas Award in the Nutrition, Sanity, Production and Other Areas categories. The best works in each category were awarded with a registration for FACTA WPSA-Brazil 2021 Conference and the FACTA Collection books.
All 53 registered works are available in the FACTA annals, which can be accessed in the event’s website: www.facta.org.br/conferencia2020/premiolamas.
On the same day, veterinary doctor José Di Fábio was awarded the ‘Professional of the Year’ FACTA Award, a decoration presented to technical/scientific professionals of notorious merit. Finally, the FACTA board also made a tribute to journalist José Carlos Godoy and the entity’s former employee Nilza Marcondes, for their contributions to the foundation and Brazilian aviculture.
The 16 members of the board of the French branch of WPSA elected the following members to serve as the Executive Committee for the branch:
- President: Dr Christophe Bostvironnois
- Secretary: Dr Michel Duclos
- Treasurer: Mrs Catherine Hamelin
- Vice-president in charge of the organisation of WPC2021: Dr Michèle Tixier-Boichard
- Vice-president in charge of relationships with Poultry Industry: Mr Michel Lessire
The German branch is beginning to organize its next conference that will be held at the Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied Sciences (Campus Triesdorf). The meeting is scheduled for March 9-10, 2021.
Inga Tiemann, Secretary, Germany Branch
The Indonesian Branch of WPSA will organize and hot a World Waterfowl Conference during 2022 in Jakarta. More information on the conference will be posted as our plans are developed.
The Italian Branch will host the 23rd edition of European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition (ESPN) which will be held at the Palacongressi of Rimini (Italy) from 5 to 8 September, 2022. The city of Rimini, is an ideal place for the European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition and the modern as well as eco-friendly Venue is the perfect stage for the event. Many attendees including both poultry research scientists and practitioners, leading speakers from across the world joining together to explore the past, share the present and helping to forge the future of poultry meat science. More details are already available at the Symposia website: https://www.espn2022.eu/.
Massimiliano Petracci, Secretary, Italian Branch of WPSA
<info [AT] wpsa [DOT] it>
The 2021 Spring Meeting of JPSA will be held at Kyushu University in Fukuoka, during 29–30 March where presentations of original research findings, a symposium, a general meeting and a council meeting will be organized. The council meeting will be held on March 29, and the presentations of research findings as well as the general meeting will be organized on March 30. However, if the Covid-19 situation continues, the meeting will probably be held in an online (Web) form. Members of JPSA will be kept informed as to how this meeting will be handled.
The Journal of Poultry Science (JPS - the official journal of JPSA, IF: 0.880), recently became a member of PubMed Central (PMC), and the articles of the JPS can now be accessed through the PubMed search engine. We welcome contributions of original research articles and reviews to the JPS using the following web site: https://jpn-psa.jp/en/jps-en/. Free access to download the full-published articles in JPS is available on J-Stage (https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/browse/jpsa), which provides an excellent opportunity for all to access the scientific articles published in JPS.
JPSA wants to contribute, not only to poultry science in Japan, but also internationally, by enhancing its interaction with members from different countries. Thus, JPSA has a membership category for foreign citizens residing abroad as ‘Special International Member’. The page charges for publishing in the JPS for such members will be set at the regular membership price. JPSA enthusiastically welcomes new members from all over the world. Please visit the JPSA website (http://jpn-psa.jp/?lang=en) for further information.
The COVID-19 pandemic has created a tough situation in the world, but JPSA hopes things will get better soon. Please take good care of yourself!
Naoki Goto, Secretary of WPSA Japan Branch
The 2020 New Zealand Poultry Industry Conference will be held on 6-7 October 2020, in Nelson, New Zealand
Reza Abdollahi, Secretary, New Zealand Branch
WPSA SRI LANKA BRANCH NEWS
The Sri Lanka Branch will be havng its Annual Scientific Sessions and Industrial Evening on 23rd October 2020, at Hotel Taj Samudra Colombo. At the Scientific sessions there will be research papers by local scientists both oral and poster presentations on topics related to poultry. As customary the best presentation is given an award.
The theme for the evening is ‘Economic Impact on Covid19 for the Poultry Industry’.
Due to the prevailing Covid19 situation we have to restrict participation, hence there will not be any foreign participants. However we have invited Dr Chin How Cheong our honourable life member from Singapore to give a presentation on a virtual platform
Locally we hope to get an expert Economist as our Guest Speaker on the theme.
The days’ proceedings will end with an Industry Awards Ceremony and dinner at the same venue.
The WPSA Turkish Branch decided to hold our board meetings online from now on with the participation of all board members.
During our initial on-line meeting, it was decided to hold discussions with the Ministry of Agriculture and other professional associations after the lifting of restrictions and to exchange ideas for solving the many difficulties currently facing the poultry sector due to the pandemic. Another decision taken was that our Biennial National Poultry Congress for Turkey will be scheduled for the second half of 2021 with the cooperation of one of our universities.
Prof. Dr. Kâzım Şahin, Secretary of the Turkish Branch
The USA and Canadian branches of the WPSA hosted the annual WPSA Lecture that was presented on July 20th during the Poultry Science Association’s first ever virtual Annual Meeting. The speaker was Dr. Frank Mitloehner from the Department of Animal Science at the University of California-Davis campus, and the topic was ‘The 2050 Challenge: Feeding the World Without Wasting It.’ Dr. Mitloehner addressed the true impact of poultry and livestock production on climate change and how we as poultry scientists might help share these messages with the public. The WPSA Lecture served as the Keynote address for this year’s virtual Annual Meeting and was exceptionally well attended.
Bob Buresh, WPSA Senior Vice President, and Secretary USA Branch