|Volume 40, September 2017||Newsletter Editor: Dr G.B. Havenstein,|
Board meeting 2017
The annual board meeting was held 8 May 2017 in Salou, Spain, in connection with the European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition. Besides standard agenda items as officers’ reports and planning the budget, issues as support for (new) branches and ways of communication were discussed. A new text needed to change the Constitution and By-laws, specifically with regard to the Articles on the World’s Poultry Congress was accepted and branches will shortly get the opportunity to vote on this change. Changes, if accepted will be published on the website.
Representatives from branches in Bangladesh, Mexico and Spain were invited to report on their approach to make the branch a success. More details will be published on the WPSA website.
With help of the Spanish branch the WPSA Constitution and By-laws and the Constitution for new branches, have been translated in Spanish. The Spanish Constitution/By-Laws are available on our website.
WPSA has several programmes to support members to attend WPSA organized events and to support branches. Details can be found on the WPSA website. A problem is that applications often come in far after the deadline which is published together with other criteria for eligibility and are for that reason rejected.
Promotion of WPSA
Several symposia and conferences will be attended this fall. The WG6 and 12 meeting in Wageningen, The Netherlands, the EggMeat symposia in Edinburgh, UK, the International Poultry Science Symposium organized by the Polish branch, Poznan, Poland, the Regional Poultry Conference in Kigali, Rwanda, in connection with Poultry Africa 2017 and the 6th World Waterfowl Conference in Taipei, Taiwan.
The meeting in Kigali, Rwanda, is part of a series of meetings during Poultry Africa 2017. The WPSA organized conference (3-4 October) is a next start to establish co-operation between poultry specialists and others, members of African branches, formerly called the African Poultry Network. The leadership conference (4-5 October) is organized by VNU Exhibitions and the World Veterinary Poultry Association. On 6 October there is a Poultry Associations meeting, also aimed at a better co-operation between associations in Africa. Details on the programmes of these meetings are on PoultryAfrica2017.com. WPSA will also be represented at the Latin American Poultry Congress in Guadalajara, Mexico.
2018 again will be a busy year with many symposia, conferences and exhibitions organized by our branches and our supporting companies. WPSA will be represented at many occasions, examples are: 1. the International Production and Processing Expo in Atlanta, USA, 2. the Asian Pacific Poultry Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 3. Victam Asia, Bangkok, Thailand, 4. the Mediterranean Poultry Summit, Torino, Italy, 5. VIV Europe, Utrecht, The Netherlands, and 6. the European Poultry Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
Cooperation with the organization on World Veterinary Education in Production Animal Health (WVEPAH)
The WVEPAH, a non-profit organization organizes training courses on poultry (for 3 à 4 weeks) in several countries. The next training course in Egg layers health for poultry experts, will be organized in Utrecht, The Netherlands from 1-22 September 2017. More details are on www.wvepah.org. All activities will also be announced on our website and in the WPS Journal.
Since the Board Meeting in Salou, I have been busy reimbursing the Board members for their travel and paying out Travel Grants to sponsored scientists who were able to attend spring and summer meetings with the financial help of WPSA. I have also happily deposited dues paid by our good Branch Secretaries around the world. I am pleased to report that at this time most of our Journal Sponsors and Advertisers have fulfilled their financial commitment, with less than a half dozen left to pay.
It was my pleasure to attend the Poultry Science Association (PSA) Meeting held in Orlando, Florida. The venue was the same as that proposed by my Branch for the 2020 WPC - the Marriott World Center. It is the largest Marriott on the globe and completely self-contained. One could walk in air-conditioned comfort from hotel room to dining to meeting rooms.
This was largest PSA ever, in terms of scientists in attendance (1235). I think many people attended and made it a family vacation, taking children and/or grandchildren to nearby Disney World, Universal Studios, etc. The WPSA Lecture was a great success, with the Lecture presented by Dr Kevin Wells, University of Missouri (See USA Branch Report).
I spoke to the Board Members of the United States Branch, at their meeting. Many good ideas were shared and initiatives started; primarily, the retention of student members once they graduate, and the promotion of WPSA to the overall PSA membership. Our Senior VP, Bob Buresh, is taking the lead on many of these ideas. I also attended the Joint Canada/United States Branch Luncheon and shared news from the world body with those in attendance. I spent a great deal of time visiting with students - before sessions, during the poster presentations, and at social events. They were all enthusiastic and bright - that is the good news. The bad news is that not a single one of them (both domestic and international students) knew anything about our WPSA Travel Grant programme. They were all WPSA members, but they did not know about this valuable resource. We have much work to do in this regard, but I think the primary fault is with the major professors and advisors. The students who do know about, apply for, and receive our Travel Grants, make great use of the opportunities. I was sought out by Dr Mariana Lemos de Moraes, who received one of our grants a few years ago. Due to that opportunity she was able to travel from Brazil to Atlanta, present a paper, and land a good job. Today she is happily employed by Jefo and covers Latin America. She seems to find me at meetings around the world and continues to say, "Thank you WPSA."
Finally, in the first six months of this year the WPSA portfolio rose by 9.80%. This figure was better than the gains of both the S&P 500 and the Dow Jones Industrial Average. We all know that bull markets do not last forever, however, so we continue with our conservative investment policy.
Dr Francine Bradley
Dubrovnik, Croatia, 17-21 September 2018
Croatia’s local organizing committee for XV EPC 2018 is fully engaged in the organisation of this conference, and it has held numerous meetings during the current year. Contacts have been made with potential sponsors and participants. The sponsors of EPC 2018 will have the opportunity to promote their company’s products and solutions to a wide range of decision makers and stakeholders within the poultry industry, as well as to leading poultry scientists. If you are interested in participating or serving as a sponsor for EPC 2018, please visit www.epc2018.com or contact the Croatian branch at .
The European Federation has numerous conferences planned between now and the end of 2018.
News from a number of European Federation's working groups is provided below.
WPSA European Working Group News
Poultry Economics and Marketing
The 6th Roundtable on Poultry Economics and Marketing will be held at the Wageningen Economic Research Centre in the Hague in the Netherlands from 4-6 October 2017. Topics covered will include: The Economics of Biosecurity; International Competition; Animal Welfare; and, Avian Influenza.
The board has adopted a vision for the future. It states that WPSA will be ‘The leading global network for poultry science and technology’. A vision is a consensus of what an organisation, an industry (or any kind of group you can think of) wants to be like at some point in the future. We do this as individuals all the time. So just as it applies to WPSA it also should apply to the global poultry industry. There are very good reasons why the poultry industries of the world should look ahead. There are many threats with us now and they won’t be going away any time soon. It’s not only our poultry industries, it’s all animal based food industries. A good example is synthetic meat. The cost of lab produced beef has reduced to affordable levels, and is now already available in some supermarkets. It is reported that texture, taste etc. are just like the ‘real thing’ and that there is very little effect on the environment with its production. This is a threat to be faced in the future by all of the animal industries, including poultry. How will we deal with this challenge? This is an important question for all sectors of the poultry industry.
Taiwan - The 6th World Waterfowl Conference, 22-25 October 2017, Howard International Service House, Taipei. For details www.wwc2017.tw
Thailand - The 11th Asia Pacific Poultry Conference, 25-27 March 2018, Plaza Athénée Hotel, Bangkok. For details http://www.appc2018.com/
Alan Gibbins, President Asian/Pacific Federation
WPSA Asian-Pacific Working Group News
The 6th World Waterfowl Conference will be held in Taipei, Taiwan on 22-25 October, 2017.
For complete information on the conference go to http://www.wwc2017.tw/.
Dr Jeng-Fang Huang, Chairperson
In the Board meeting held during WPC2016 in Beijing, China, the Board decided to increase the funds available for Branch Development by making a formal call for Branch Development Proposals. For more information click here.
We have received and approved the following proposals:
A proposal was received and accepted for supporting students to take part in the conference dinner during the XVII European Symposium on the Quality of Eggs and Egg Prodcuts and the XXIII European Symposium on the Quality of Poultr Meat, which will be held from 3-5 September in Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
A proposal was received and accepted to start a website and to establish a databse of the whole poultry sector in Sri Lanka.
The website is being developed and the official, launch will be on 15th September 2017.
The database project also has started, the preliminary work and the reviews are being done.
For more new titles see the New Publications section on our website.
|Poultry Quality Evaluation|
Articles in upcoming Journal(s)
- Mercedes Vazquez - Anon - Review of the chemistry, metabolism, and dose response of two supplemental Met sources and the implications in their relative bioefficacy
- Sajid Umar - Role of dendritic cells in immunity against avian coccidiosis
- M. Alagawany - Heat stress: effects on productive and reproductive performance of quail
- Tina Vukasovic - Going local: exploring millennials preferences for locally sourced and produced fresh poultry in a developing economy
- Kate Hartcher - The welfare of layer hens in cage and cage-free housing systems
- Sun Chao - Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) meal is an alternative protein source in poultry nutrition
- Shahid M. - Factors responsible for the continuous persistence and evolution of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (H9N2)
- Gita Cherian - Use of flaxseed in poultry feeds to meet the human need of n - 3 fatty acids
- Rahim Aydin - Egg intake and serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans
- Zia Rehman - An update on potential applications of L - carnitine in poultry
- Muhammad Chacher - Use of MOS in broiler diets: an overview of underlying mechanisms
- Hai Lin - Stress impairs the reproduction of laying hens: an involvement of energy
- Shweta Kulshreshtha - Diagnostic approaches to avian tuberculosis
- Amlan Patra - Beneficial uses of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds as a feed additive in poultry nutrition
- Sakson Soisontes - Concerns about sustainability in the poultry industry: a comparative Delphi study in Germany and Thailand
- Mohamed Abd El-Hack - Organic or inorganic zinc in poultry nutrition: a review
- Moataz Fathi - Characterisation of Saudi native chicken breeds: a case study of morphological and productive traits
- Gabriella Allegretti - Insects as feed: species selection and their potential use in Brazilian poultry production
Review of the chemistry, metabolism, and dose response of two supplemental Met sources and the implications in their relative bioefficacy
M. VÁZQUEZ-AÑÓN, G. BERTIN, Y. MERCIER, G. REZNIK and J-L. ROBERTON
This review examines the relative bioefficacy of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) and DL-methionine (DL-Met) which includes chemical, metabolic, nutritional, and statistical aspects of its bioefficacy. The chemical, enzymatic and biological differences and similarities between these two products are explained and the evidence and reasons for HMTBA relative bioefficacy to DL-Met in monogastric animals are discussed. In addition, appropriate statistical methods for comparing the bioefficacy of these two products for successful use of each product are provided. HMTBA is an organic acid precursor of L-Met. The chemical structure differences between HMTBA and DL-Met leads to differences in how and where the two materials are absorbed, enzymatically converted to L-Met and used by the animal. Because of these differences, when the two compounds are supplemented into animal feeds in graded doses, they do not produce dose response curves of the same form due in part to differences in intake and metabolism at the extremes of the dose response curves. At deficient levels of the response curve, HMTBA fed animals may exhibit lower feed consumption and growth than DL-Met while at requirement levels they may have greater feed consumption and growth. This review provides biological evidence for why these differences in growth response occur and demonstrates that lower growth, whether for DL-Met or HMTBA, does not mean that either product is being converted to methionine inefficiently. Since the two products have different dose response curves, statistically valid methods are provided for unbiased determination of relative bioefficacy across tested dose ranges. Field nutritionists typically feed commercial doses of HMTBA or DL-Met at a total sulphur amino acid dietary level capable of achieving maximum performance. At these commercial levels, and based on the evidence, the full relative bioefficacy of HMTBA relative to DL-Met is discussed.
Role of dendritic cells in immunity against avian coccidiosis
M. SHOAIB, S. XIAOKAI, MURTAZ-UL-HASAN, A. ZAFAR, A. RIAZ, S. UMAR, M. ALI SHAH and L. XIANGRUI
Dendritic cells (DC) are central regulators of immune responses and professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with the unique ability to induce both innate immune responses and a highly specific acquired immunity. DC communicates through chemical and mechanical signals in the initiation and maintenance of immune responses. DC forms immunological synapses with T-cells thus pulling T-cells strings and leading to activation of T-cells. Owing to their properties, DC are often called ‘nature’s adjuvants’ and thus have become an important component of any vaccination strategy. Coccidiosis is a major intestinal disease caused by Eimeria spp., affecting economically valuable livestock animals such as chickens and turkeys. Economic losses are associated with decreased productivity in afflicted poultry. Vaccination strategies involving DC have been developed owing to the special properties of these cells in coordinating innate and adaptive immune responses. Vaccination of chickens with exosomes isolated from DC containing parasite antigens (Ags) represents a promising alternative strategy to control avian coccidiosis. In recent years, emergence of new chicken DC has opened a new horizon for the development of new vaccines and DC derived vaccine could be a possible strategy to control coccidiosis in field. This review summarises the current state of knowledge of DC and their specific functions in immunity against avian coccidiosis.
Heat stress: effects on productive and reproductive performance of quail
M. ALAGAWANY, M.R. FARAG, M.E. ABD EL-HACK and A. PATRA
Animals experiencing thermal stress tend to reduce heat production by limiting feed intake, with subsequent detrimental impacts on productive performance and health status. Heat stress as an environmental stressor has been an important concern among researchers, poultry producers and scientists for many decades, especially in tropical (wet and hot round the year) and arid (dry and hot round the year) regions of the world. It has been implicated in adverse marked impacts on productive and reproductive performance of quail. Several studies have investigated the negative impacts of heat stress on quail production and it has been shown that heat stress adversely affects both productivity and welfare of birds. The deleterious impacts of heat stress on different quail breeds such as Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), scaled quail (Callipepla californica) and Gambel's quail (Colinus gambelii) range from decreased body weight (7.7 to 13.2%), growth rate (11.0 to 14.5%), feed intake (6.1 to 21.6%), feed efficiency (4.3 to 8.6%), egg production (6.6 to 23.3%) and egg mass. Furthermore, the detrimental effects of heat stress on reproductive performance and welfare of quail have recently attracted awareness. However, further studies are required to increase the levels of information into basic mechanisms associated with the consequences of heat stress on quail. This review covers the published evidence available on the negative role of heat stress on growth performance, feed utilisation, egg production and mass, meat and egg quality and carcass traits as well as reproductive performance of quail.
Going local: exploring millennials preferences for locally sourced and produced fresh poultry in a developing economy
T. VUKASOVIĆ and J.L. STANTON
The food processing industry is faced with complex challenges that are, among other things, associated with changes in the global environment. The goal of this paper is to gain knowledge about millennials (those born at the end of the 20th century) perceptions of locally sourced and produced fresh poultry in a developing economy, and to understand the influenced factors in the locally food market development. The research showed that this sector expresses a positive attitude towards locally sourced and produced fresh poultry. Additionally, there is a significant tendency towards purchasing fresh poultry of domestic origin because of its quality and safety. These results are particularly useful for product marketing and future product development in the locally sourced and produced poultry sector, as they provide an indication as how it can better reach and satisfy millennials. Our study shows significant opportunities, challenges and potentials in the development of the locally sourced and produced food market.
The welfare of layer hens in cage and cage-free housing systems
K.M. HARTCHER and B. JONES
Historically, animal welfare has been defined by the absence of negative states such as disease, hunger and thirst. However, a shift in animal welfare science has led to the understanding that good animal welfare cannot be achieved without the experience of positive states. Unequivocally, the housing environment has significant impacts on animal welfare. This review summarises how cage and cage-free housing systems impact some of the key welfare issues for layer hens: musculoskeletal health, disease, severe feather pecking, and behavioural expression. Welfare in cage-free systems is currently highly variable, and needs to be addressed by management practices, genetic selection, further research, and appropriate design and maintenance of the housing environment. Conventional cages lack adequate space for movement, and do not include features to allow behavioural expression. Hens therefore experience extreme behavioural restriction, and an inability to experience positive affective states. Furnished cages retain the benefits of conventional cages in terms of production efficiency and hygiene, and offer some benefits of cage-free systems in terms of an increased behavioural repertoire, but do not allow full behavioural expression. In Australia, while the retail market share of free-range eggs has been increasing in recent years, the majority of hens (approximately 70%) remain housed in conventional cages, and furnished cages are not in use. Unlike many other countries including New Zealand, Canada, and all those within the European Union, where a legislated phase-out commenced in 1999 and was completed in 2012, a legislative phase-out of conventional cages has not been announced in Australia. This review came about in light of the current development of the Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines for Poultry in Australia. These standards are intended to provide nationally consistent legislation for the welfare of all poultry species in all Australian states and territories. While it is purported that the standards will reflect contemporary scientific knowledge, there is no scientific review, nor scientific committee to inform the development of these standards, and conventional cages are permitted in the standards with no phase-out proposed.
Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) meal is an alternative protein source in poultry nutrition
M. SAEED, M.A. ARAIN, M. ARIF, M. LAGAWANY, M.E. ABD EL-HACK, M.U. KAKAR, R. MANZOOR, S. ERDENEE and S. CHAO
The application of novel feedstuffs in poultry diets, especially in developing countries, has received attention in recent years. Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) is a non-edible oil seed, and its meal is a rich in protein. Jatropha meal (JM) has been characterised as a potentially useful animal feedstuff due to its high content of crude protein level (35-50%), essential amino acid and mineral content. However, jatropha kernel contains high amounts of phytate, ranging from 7 to 10%, which would require phytase supplementation for it to be used in feeds. Jatropha contains toxic compounds and anti-nutritional factors, including lectin, tannin, saponin, phorbol esters and trypsin inhibitors, which require different treatments (physical, chemical or biological) to make it suitable for poultry diets. As a result of the presence of detrimental compounds, only low levels of jatropha in feed are recommended from animal trials. It may be used to partially substitute soybean meal, but not maize. It has been suggested in the literature that, after physical or chemical treatment of jatropha seed meal, it may have other benefits, including as an immunomodulant and antioxidant, as well as hypocholestermic, antihypertensive, hepatoprotectant, antiretroviral, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antibacterial properties. It appears that heat and enzyme treated jatropha could be used in poultry diets without detrimental effects on productive and reproductive performance and may promote health status in poultry.
Factors responsible for the continuous persistence and evolution of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (H9N2)
M. UMER ASHRAF, M. SHAHID MAHMOOD, A. RAFIQUE, R. ZAHID ABBAS, Z. IQBAL, M. YOUNAS, S. AHMAD SADIQ, M. USMAN, M. OMER ASGHAR and M. USMAN ISHAQ
Avian influenza virus (AIV) type A subtype H9N2 usually causes mild asymptomatic infections, and is mostly undetected and is, therefore, under-reported. This has allowed the virus to rapidly evolve via mutations and reassortments in its genome with other avian influenza subtypes especially H1N1, H5N1 and H7N3 thereby introducing new variant strains and producing severe disease. It has been reported that the AIV H9N2 donated its internal genes for the devastating 1997 Hong Kong outbreak and furthermore, it may be the cause of the next influenza pandemic. There are many factors such as its wide host range, ability to cross the species barrier, ecological diversity, antiviral resistance and zoonotic importance that make it an excellent candidate for the next influenza pandemic. These and other factors like ineffective vaccination, negative immunological pressures, lack of surveillance, etc. which contribute to its continuous persistence and evolutionary dynamics are discussed in this paper. It is important to take the necessary measures to control and prevent its unchecked circulation to prevent the future outbreaks.
Use of flaxseed in poultry feeds to meet the human need of n-3 fatty acids
M.H. BEHESHTI MOGHADAM and G. CHERIAN
Health benefits of fatty acids (FA) of the n-3 family have been well documented. The current consumption of n-3 FA by humans is below the recommended intake in Western countries. There are two sources of n-3 FA: α-linolenic acid (18-3 n-3, ALA) from terrestrial sources and long chain 20 and 22 carbon n-3 FA from marine oils. There is an increased interest in developing food products such as eggs and meat enriched with n-3 FA to meet the human requirement. In this context, poultry food lipids are a highly targeted and well-researched food item. Among the different feed sources, flaxseed, owing to its high fat (~40-42%) and ALA (>50%) contents along with other nutritional properties (e.g., metabolisable energy, protein content), is the most common feed ingredient explored for n-3 FA enrichment. This review attempts to bring together the use of flaxseeds in poultry feeds and its role in meeting the human requirements of n-3 FA through n-3 FA enriched foods. The antinutritional factors (ANF) present in flaxseeds and ways to mitigate the negative effects of ANF in poultry feeding are also included.
Egg intake and serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans
Cholesterol plays an essential role in the synthesis of cell membrane, bile acids, and steroid hormones as well as vitamin D. Dietary cholesterol comes from only animal sources, such as meat, butter, cheese and eggs, and contributes about 20% per day to the body pool in humans. Chicken egg, which is a good source of essential amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals, contains approximately 213 mg cholesterol. Data available related to egg intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is inconsistent. Early research suggested that egg intake elevated plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) identified as a major risk factor for CVD in humans. Recent studies show that dietary cholesterol may not be the actual factor in an individual’s plasma TC, LDL-C and CVD. According to the latest nutrition recommendations, one egg may be eaten as long as one’s total daily dietary cholesterol is limited to ≤300 mg per day. Health professionals suggest restricting dietary cholesterol to avoid elevating blood LDL-C and risk of CVD. This suggestion influences per capita consumption of the egg playing an important role in the nutrition of children and elderly people. This review focuses on egg intake, LDL-C and TC levels in the blood and the regulatory mechanism maintaining the homeostasis of serum cholesterol in the human body.
An update on potential applications of L-carnitine in poultry
Z. REHMAN, S. NAZ, R.U. KHAN and M. TAHIR
L-Carnitine (B-hydroxy-Y-N-trimethyl aminobutyrate) is a water-soluble product, found in animals, plants and microorganisms. Its synthesis takes place from two important amino acids, lysine and methionine. Essentially, L-carnitine has an intermediary role in metabolism. It promotes energy metabolism for cell and regulates co-enzyme A concentration in cystosol and mitochondria, which are important in glucose and lipid metabolism. L-carnitine was first isolated from the chicken embryo in a significant amount, but is absent in the egg. Under normal physiological conditions, the endogenously synthesised levels are sufficient for normal growth and functions. Its requirements are increased in stressful conditions and during metabolic and physiological higher demands, such as growth and laying periods. L-carnitine increases energy production, fat metabolism and improves immune status in birds, which is energy demanding. In this review, several aspects of the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation of L-carnitine on poultry health and production are briefly summarised.
Use of MOS in broiler diets: an overview of underlying mechanisms
M.F.A. CHACHER, Z. KAMRAN, U. AHSAN, S. AHMAD, H.G. QUTAB UD DIN and Ö. CENGIZ
Antibiotic resistance has led poultry nutritionists to find alternatives for antibacterial growth promoters in broilers. Among these substitutes, one is mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), a yeast cell wall derived prebiotic. MOS decreases the load of pathogenic bacteria through 1) binding bacterial type-1 fimbriae 2) increasing goblet cells which produce bactericidal mucin and 3) providing favourable environment for the growth of beneficial bacteria leading to competitive exclusion. Balance between pathogenic and beneficial bacteria causes increase in villus length and decrease in crypt depth which are biomarkers for gut morphological improvement. As structure is equal to function, improvement in intestinal morphology increases activity of digestive enzymes and ultimately improves digestion. Besides these, immunomodulatory effect of MOS activates macrophages of gut associated lymphoid tissues resulting in improvement in cellular, humoral and cutaneous immunity. MOS also increases production of butyric acid and decrease pH of intestine in broilers. Though these combined mechanisms, MOS improves growth rate and performance of broilers.
Stress impairs the reproduction of laying hens: an involvement of energy
X.J. WANG, L. LIU, J.P. ZHAO, H.C. JIAO and H. LIN
The reduction of reproductive performance associated with stress is a known phenomenon in domestic birds. This review demonstrates the involvement of glucocorticoids, a stress hormone, in the decision-making process regarding energy ingestion and distribution in laying hens. During the energetic challenge induced by a stressful environment, corticosterone stimulates energy intake and a preference for a high-fat diet by up-regulating neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. The elevated corticosterone levels in response to stressors may be associated with suppressed reproduction in laying hens via a possible perturbation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Corticosterone suppresses follicular development and is energy dependent by decreasing the availability of the circulating yolk precursor and the prevention of yolk deposition in follicles. Energy status is also involved in rejuvenation in moult hens.
Diagnostic approaches to avian tuberculosis
V. SRIVASTAVA, A. DAHIYA, S. SINGH and S. KULSHRESHTHA
Avian tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by M. avium including four subspecies Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium; M. avium hominissuis; M. avium paratuberculosis; M. avium silvaticum. This disease is characterised by the formation of granulomatous lesions in viscera, a progressive weight loss and death. It can be transmitted to healthy birds in the flock, and occasionally to human beings. It is important to diagnose avian tuberculosis in order to prevent the spread of infection and epidemiology. This paper reviews the available techniques for the diagnosis of avian tuberculosis along with their pros and cons. The main problem in diagnosis is poor availability of samples due to infrequent shedding in faeces, pattern and colour of feathers, wattle and comb and lack of specific signs and symptoms. Any single technique is not effective in diagnosing the disease due to the lack of required sensitivity and specificity. Application of two or more techniques is not a feasible option in developing countries due to financial constraints. In the short term, more research is needed to develop multidisciplinary approaches which can help fully understand the aetiology and epidemiology of disease.
Beneficial uses of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds as a feed additive in poultry nutrition
P. KUMAR and A.K. PATRA
Nigella sativa L. (black cumin), an aromatic plant, is used as a natural remedy due to the presence of antimicrobial, antioxidant and other pharmacological properties. The presence of large number of essential nutrients (EO) and a variety of pharmacologically active compounds make black cumin seeds (BCS) potentially suitable for the use in poultry diets as a feed ingredient. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the possibility of introducing BCS as a natural feed additive for better productive performance under normal or stress conditions in birds. Supplementation of BCS in poultry diets increased growth performance, daily feed intake and feed efficiency in several studies. Nutrient utilisation also increased as a result of BCS inclusion in the diets. The population of some pathogenic bacteria were decreased by BCS. Antibody titres against viral diseases after vaccination increased owing to supplementation of BCS in the diets. The inclusion of BCS in poultry diets showed pronounced cholesterol lowering effect in blood. There is limited information on the chemical composition and antioxidant properties in meat and eggs from chickens fed with BCS diet. However, few studies reported that BCS may increase polyunsaturated fatty acid content and antioxidant properties in meat. The present paper reviews the effect of BCS as an alternative to growth promoters in poultry nutrition.
Concerns about sustainability in the poultry industry: a comparative Delphi study in Germany and Thailand
Thailand and Germany’s poultry industries face different agro-ecological and socio-economic circumstances, as well as a variety of public policies on sustainability in poultry production. Based on literature, 26 sustainability issues were identified and categorised into the five dimensions of sustainability, including environmental, economic, social, political and animal welfare aspects. Through a two-round Delphi methodology with an expert panel, additional concerning issues were proposed and all the sustainability issues were weighted by level of concern, from level 1 (not at all concerned) to level 5 (very concerned). Results showed that social, animal welfare and economic issues dominate the current discussion of sustainable poultry production. The use of antibiotics in poultry production, killing of male layer chicks and the role of food retailers were rated ‘very concerning’ by the German experts, whereas the Thai experts considered the outbreak of avian influenza and other highly infectious diseases, disease control in neighbouring countries, use of antibiotics in poultry production, contamination of meat and eggs with zoonotic microorganisms, and standards for poultry products required by importing countries were rated as the most concerning issues.
Organic or inorganic zinc in poultry nutrition: a review
M.E. ABD EL-HACK, M. ALAGAWANY, M. ARIF, M.T. CHAUDHRY, M. EMAM and A. PATRA
Zinc (Zn) is an essential component in animal and poultry metabolism of various biochemical pathways. It serves as a nutrient and also as a feed additive for improving reproductive functions, productive indices, cellular immunity, normal growth and the maintenance of feathers, bone tissues as well as appetite. Furthermore, Zn has many roles as an antioxidant agent. This mineral is essential for hormone function, including pancreatic (insulin and glucagon), sex and growth hormones. It is a part of more than 300 enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of protein, energy, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. Previous studies demonstrated many beneficial impacts of supplemental Zn on different physiological and immunological functions above the established concentration in diets, including alleviating heat stress. Zinc supplementation in layer diets increases albumen weight, and may alter egg shell thickness and total egg weight. Zinc deficiency can cause a fraying of the feathers and retardation in growth of broilers. Different Zn sources (organic or inorganic) positively impact health and performance in poultry including meat or egg production, feed intake and conversion efficiency, carcass traits, blood parameters and apparent nutrient digestibility. This review compares and provides a review of the nutritional and physiological aspects of different Zn sources.
Characterisation of Saudi native chicken breeds: a case study of morphological and productive traits
M.M. FATHI, I. AL-HOMIDAN, O.K. ABOU-EMERA and A. AL-MOSHAWAH
Native or local chicken breeds play an important role in the rural sector and small households in developing countries, as well as provide a reservoir of potentially useful genetics for commercial strains. Standardisation and classification of the available native chicken populations based on morphological appearance, coupled with genetic diversity are necessary to conserve them for genetic improvement strategies. Most of the studies conducted on Saudi native chickens to evaluate their productive performance usually ignore the genetic origin and purity of the breed. Despite most native chickens having poor productivity, people in Saudi Arabia traditionally raise these chickens for their preferred eggs and ornamented appearance. The majority of such native chickens are maintained in rural communities and household poultry farms however, some native chickens with genes such as naked neck (Na), frizzle (F) and crest (Cr) are kept by poultry fanciers in small populations. These genotypes exhibit better performance under hot environmental conditions, a trait that may be useful in commercial strains. Six Saudi native chicken populations have been recognised and characterised. Their morphological characteristics, plumage appearance and productive performance have extensively been studied and documented in the current review.
Insects as feed: species selection and their potential use in Brazilian poultry production
G. ALLEGRETTI, V. SCHMIDT and E. TALAMINI
The growing global demand for soybeans due to its different uses and by-products, as well as its use in the diet of several livestock species, is forcing the industry to seek alternative protein sources. Environmental concerns related to huge volumes of poultry manure serve as a warning for the choice of more sustainable production systems. Thus, the current review investigates the processing of an insect meal as an alternative protein source to feed broilers. The five desirable features in the selection of insect species proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) show that the high productivity of biomass, feed conversion efficiency and the organic waste conversion capacity from poultry farms is aided by the use of larvae from housefly and black soldier fly species. Brazilian production of such insects is possible due to climatic and environmental conditions and has the potential to supply part of the protein demands of the Brazilian poultry industry when raised in controlled environments. The prevalence of tropical climatic conditions and the possible use of organic waste from poultry farms as substrate can mitigate some environmental issues as well as generate income to smallholder farms prevailing in this activity.
The Brazilian Branch of WPSA provided the following report.
May, 2017 - FACTA promoted the 34th FACTA Conference between May 23rd and 25th, at Expo D. Pedro, Campinas, SP. In this event was attended by 460 people (veterinarians, management and technicians), with relevant issues to the Brazilian poultry industry.
July, 2017 - In Maringá, Paraná State, between 04th and 05th , happened the FACTA’s Meeting on Slaughter and Processing of Broilers, with 60 attendees. This meeting aimed to bring up-dated information on slaughtering and processing techniques for broilers.
August, 2017 - FACTA’s International Meeting on Hatchery, was held between August 15th and 16th, over passing all expectations of the sector. Attendees of the event elected, and asked for the coming meetings, to be held at next year.
Future - During October and November 2917, FACTA will carry out a FACTA Meeting on Salmonella and Campylobacter in Industrial Poultry, in Campinas, SP and another Meeting on Processing, in Foz do Iguaçu, respectively.
FACTA offers online courses using the ‘EAD for us’ distance-learning platform. The first three courses taught in Portuguese are Basic animal welfare; Well-being in poultry and Rural buildings and environment. The courses are designed to reach teachers, students, producers and professionals who work in the poultry production chain. The platform has courses in several areas, and the poultry courses will be offered in collaboration with FACTA.
Instructions for registration and values are available at www.facta.org.br/agenda-avicola/. For further information, please contact us at .
The Italian Branch of WPSA organized a technical seminar entitled ‘Phytate and Phytase: the value chain of phytate destruction’ on last June 8th in Ozzano dell’Emilia. Martino Cassandro, President of the Italian Branch of WPSA, opened the seminar and introduced Dr Markus Rodehutscord, Hohenheim University, Germany, who presented an update on phytate degradation patterns in the gastrointestinal tract of broilers and on the minerals interaction and degradation of fats in poultry, highlighting the issue of phosphorus digestibility testing. This was followed by a review of the reduction of tetrakisphosphate (IP4) IP6 phytate to trisphosphate (IP3) – or perhaps even lower – which does not remove anti-nutritional properties and its implications for poultry, by Dr Mike Bedford, Research Director at AB Vista., who brought to the table the main highlights from the 3rd International Phytate Summit (IPS3). Slides of the presentations can be accessed at our site: http://www.wpsa.it/home/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=as002057free:category&id=48&Itemid=181.
The Italian Branch will also organize the next Mediterranean Poultry Summit that will be held on 18-20 June, 2018 in Turin. Further information will be soon available at the next website: http://www.mpn-wpsa.org/main/
Massimiliano Petracci, Branch Secretary
The Autumn Meeting of JPSA, 2017 will be held at Shinshu University, Ina, Nagano, during 4–6 September. The oral presentations, council, and general meetings will be held during the meeting. Moreover, an open symposium and a mini-international symposium are additional events of the meeting. The open symposium entitled ‘Challenges and directions for the improvement of chicken breeding’ will be held on the first day, September 4. Several guest speakers from poultry breeding institutes and companies will talk about the present and future status and issues related to broiler and layer breeding. The symposium is open to the public with no charge for participation. The oral presentations will be held on the second day, September 5. There will be a total of 39 presentations including 17 from those individuals who were nominated for excellent presentation awards. The content of these presentations will be based on studies the speakers have done in their respective poultry research areas.
The mini-international symposium entitled ‘Leading-edge research on the poultry and animal sciences’ will be held on the third day, September 6. The mini-international symposium will be hosted by JPSA, the Japan Branch of the World’s Poultry Science Association, Japanese Society of Animal Science and will be co-hosted by the Faculty of Agriculture at Shinshu University. Two speakers have been invited from the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Korea. Dr Jae Yong Han will present a lecture on ‘Primordial germ cells, and genome editing in aves’; and, Dr Heebal Kim will lecture on ‘Genome-wide evolutionary analysis to resolve genomic enigma of animals in the era of next-generation sequencing’. Those lectures will be followed by three genetics area on their research. The mini-international symposium is also open to the public and is free of charge to participants.
The Journal of Poultry Science (JPS, the official journal of JPSA, Impact Factor: 0.771) always welcomes the submission of reviews and original papers. Free access to download the full-published articles in JPS is available on J-Stage (https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/browse/jpsa), which provides an excellent opportunity to have good references from the previous research findings.
JPSA would like to contribute to the poultry science over the world by enhancing the international activity with the members from different countries. Thus, JPSA has a membership category for foreign citizens residing abroad as ‘Special International Member’. The page charges to publish their papers in the JPS will be set at a membership price. JPSA invariably welcome new members from all over the world. Please visit JPSA website (http://jpn-psa.jp/?lang=en) for further information.
Naoki Goto, Secretary Japan Branch
The WSPA (Mauritius Branch) organised a special technical talk on 'Alternatives to antibiotics in broiler production' delivered by Emeritus Professor Simon Shane from North Carolina State University on Wednesday 14 June. The talk was well attended by Industry, Veterinary authorities and by Academia. Professor Simon Shane is a regular visitor to Mauritius and provides valuable advice to the poultry industry in Mauritius.
The Executive committee of WPSA (Mauritius) will meet officials of the University of Mauritius on Friday 11 August to consider the possibility of organising a joint certificate course on poultry health and production. Resource personnel will be chosen from amongst WPSA members, university staff and foreign professors, the latter providing on line courses.
Scientific communication with industry
The VNITIP Federal Scientific Centre of the Russian Science Academy in Serguiev Posad, Moscow Region, recognises the importance of scientific communication with the industry and has a programme to encourage this effort. Every year more than 1000 experts from Russia and abroad attend lectures from leading scientists in poultry industry areas, exchange experiences and discuss innovations from local and foreign poultry science efforts in Ptitsegrad.
All are welcome to attend the courses in Serguiev Posad.
The planned seminars for the remainder of 2017 are:
|No.||The seminar theme||Date|
|1.||Modern technologies in feed production, feeding of high producing poultry crosses, control of feed and premix and biological additive safety and quality (for poultry farm and feed mill technologists, veterinarians, zoo- and vet-laboratory leaders, feed zootechnicians, professors)||
|2.||The international poultry expert forum ‘Some economic aspects of poultry industry enterprise functioning effectiveness’ (for poultry industry enterprise financial and economic service leaders and experts, technologists)||18-23 September|
|3.||Progressive and resource conserving technologies in egg production and processing (for poultry enterprise leaders, technologists, zootechnicians, veterinarians, engineers and foremen, professors||16-21 October|
|4.||Selection and reproduction of high producing poultry crosses (for breeding farm leaders and experts)||13-18 November|
Additional information can be found at the website: www.vnitip.ru
Tatiana Vasilieva, Branch Secretary
The South African Branch will organise the 35th Scientific Day on Wednesday 1 November 2017 at the CSIR Conference Center in Pretoria. The theme of the meeting is 'Unlocking the Nutritional Potential of Poultry Feed.
Click here for the programme of the meeting.
Nicola Tyler, Branch Secretary
The WPSA Turkish Branch continues to take an active role in all activities related to poultry. Preparatory work is underway in connection with the International Poultry Congress to be held in Niğde, situated in the Cappadocia region, in May 2018. This congress, which will be held in cooperation with Niğde Ömer Halisdemir University Faculty of Agriculture, is expected to attract substantial participation from all over the world.
Our board members participated in the VIV Turkey 2017 8th International Trade Fair for Poultry Technologies held in Istanbul between July 5-7, 2017, and important discussions were held with national and international companies attending the fair. Branch President Prof. Dr. Akbay was among those who made opening remarks.
The 1st Poultry Workshop was organised by Niğde University Faculty of Agriculture and Ankara Poultry Research Institute and was held on the 21-22 July 2017. The workshop was held in memory of the late Prof. Dr. Orhan Düzgüneş who brought poultry statistics and poultry genetics to Turkey and in honour of our Branch President Prof. Dr. Rüveyde Akbay for establishing the WPSA Turkish Branch and for her contributions to the Turkish poultry sector. There was significant participation from the related departments of the universities and the sector and an award was presented to Prof. Dr. Akbay.
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Cengizhan Mızrak, Secretary of the WPSA Turkish Branch
Spring Meeting, University of Chester
The UK Branch held its annual Spring meeting on 26th and 27th April 2017 at the University of Chester. This lovely city has hosted our conference for the past two years but we will be visiting a new venue of Croke Park in the city of Dublin, Ireland for 2018. As ever, the meeting show cased the work of many early career poultry scientists alongside some very thought-provoking invited and submitted papers. The standard of talks from first time presenters was very high indeed. The 2017 Gordon Memorial Lecture was given by Prof. Dr. Rudi Preisinger, Chief Technical Officer, EW Group on Innovative layer genetic approaches to handling global challenges in egg production, which provided a true insight into how a leading company is addressing the demands for rapid change. Our first invited speaker session provided two excellent papers from Aiden Leek (Trouw Nutrition) on the potential application of insects for poultry nutrition and Mike McGrew (The Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS) on Future prospects for gene editing of poultry genomes. The second invited speaker session provided an external perspective on the use of insects in the animal production sector with an insight into consumer perception, which was followed by a broader evaluation of Consumer engagement with the animal production sector from Prof. David Hughes, Imperial College London.
32nd Poultry Science Symposium, University of Cambridge
Every few years, the WPSA UK branch organises a poultry symposium, which aims to attract members of industry, research and education. Since its inception, the symposium series has covered a wide variety of topics. This year was the 32nd symposium, which was held from the 3rd to 5th July in the historic city of Cambridge. The theme was ‘Poultry Feathers and Skin – the past, present and future of poultry integument’ capturing the aspects of biology, genetics, welfare, nutrition and management related to poultry feathers and skin. Over 50 international delegates attended to hear world leading experts discuss their subject matters in great detail. The lively panel discussions highlighted the interest in a niche, but important topic for the poultry industry. Delegates also enjoyed a social programme which encompassed punting along the River Cam and a gala dinner in Clare College’s magnificent 17th century Great Hall. A symposium book will soon be published containing all the papers and posters presented at the conference.
The 2018 WPSA UK Branch Annual Meeting
The 2018 WPSA Annual Meeting will be held in Dublin from 9-11 April at Dublin’s iconic Croke Stadium with a theme of ‘Innovation to compete in the global livestock industry’. The joint WPSA / BSAS event will see more than 500 scientists, vets, policy makers and farmers from across the globe gather to hear about the challenges and opportunities facing the livestock sector, and the ways it can innovate to create more sustainable systems. An international line-up of world-leading speakers will discuss the groundbreaking technologies being made in livestock production, as well as the issues that need to be addressed to ensure potential gains in productivity are grasped. Speakers will also discuss how those developments are communicated with farmers and producers, and how the sector can encourage the adoption of new ways of working. We look forward to meeting up with Irish colleagues to explore how the poultry sector can share knowledge, ideas and best-practices as Brexit drives the UK to become more global in the way it deals with critical issues such as trade and policy. As ever, the UK branch annual meeting provides a great opportunity for helping scientists, policy makers and producers to build relationships and networks across the European livestock sector and beyond. Submissions are now being accepted on any aspect of poultry science or related disciplines. In order to be considered for the WPSA section of the joint meeting (which includes subsequent publication in British Poultry Abstracts) please ensure you use the WPSA abstract template and submit to the WPSA section of the meeting. One-page submissions for original communications must be completed by 31 October 2017.
Steve Lister, UK Branch Secretary
The USA and Canadian Branches of the WPSA jointly sponsored the annual WPSA lecture held during the Poultry Science Association Annual meeting in July in Orlando, FL. The speaker was Dr Kevin Wells of the University of Missouri presenting the topic ‘History and future of genetically engineered food animal regulation’. His presentation was both very informative and challenging to all in attendance. His core message was that genetic engineering in food animals is coming and the poultry industry is significantly behind the times in preparation for this new technology that was initiated in the 1970’s. His thorough and extensive review of the history of genetic engineering set the stage for outlining the challenges that will be faced by the industry.
Also, during the PSA annual meeting, the USA and Canadian Branches also hosted a joint annual luncheon promoting fellowship and interaction between the branches.
The USA Branch conducted its annual business meeting in Orlando, with a majority of the Board members present. Key topics discussed were a review of the financial reports, discussion of the under-utilization of WPSA’s Travel Grant programme, and discussion about opportunities to expand membership and retain student members. The USA Branch also made a brief presentation during the annual PSA Business meeting highlighting the leadership of WPSA and the USA Branch, benefits for WPSA membership and recent WPSA activities.
Bob Buresh, Branch Secretary